Efficiency depends on the trinity of material, shape and the process of making. The lighter that constructions have to be, the more critical the balance between these three…… Beukers
Shaping forces originate in all natural spheres
- in inanimate nature
- in animate nature
- in animal and human technology
- in art
- Lead Sulphide
The centers of curvature of the membrane are on opposite sides of the membrane e.g. hyperbolic parabaloid, torus
The centers of curvature of the membrane are on the same side of the membrane.
e.g sphere or balloon
The Process of Making => Classes of Construction
- Arches, Vaults and Shells
The structural membrane acts also as the weathershield
A separate grid of structural cables supports a non–structural weathershield
The tension force is created by an interior positive pressure and the membrane acts as the weathershield
These constructions are usually curved in one direction only and are stabilized by their own weight, by stiffening the surface or guying.
Arches, Vaults & Shells:
Arch and vault constructions use little material and small mass when the form is generated by the inverted catenary, or for shells, the inverted net.
These constructions are three dimensional supporting systems based on minimal path systems. They can be investigated with soap films between two parallel plates.
A simple paraboloid is defined by a minimum of four points w/ at least one out of plane.