Living Walls

Introduction:

Living walls (also called bio walls, ìmurî vegetal, or vertical gardens) are composed of pre-vegetated panels or integrated fabric systems that are affixed to a structural wall or frame. Modular panels can be comprised of polypropylene plastic containers, geo textiles, irrigation, and growing medium and vegetation. This system supports a great diversity of plant species, including a mixture of ground covers, ferns, low shrubs, perennial flowers, and edible plants. Living walls perform well in full sun, shade, and interior applications, and can be used in both tropical and temperate locations.
Benefits Of Living Walls:
  • Improvement of Air Quality
  • Reduction of Urban Heat Island Effect
  • Moderate Building Temperatures
  • Contribute to Carbon Dioxide/Oxygen Exchange
  • Stormwater Management (absorbs 45-75% of rainfall)
  • Sound Insulation
  • Building Envelope Protection
  • Habitat and Biodiversity
  • Aesthetics
  • Health (visual contact with vegetation has been proven to result in direct health benefits).

LEED points:

  • Sustainable Sites Credit 7.1: Landscape Design That Reduces Urban Heat Islands, Non-Roof (1 pt) Exterior green walls reduce the solar reflectance of a structure, thus reducing the urban heat island effect.
  • Water Efficiency Credits 1.1, 1.2: Water Efficient Landscaping (1 to 2 pts) Buildings can incorporate a stormwater collection system for irrigation of the green walls and other landscape features. Using only captured, recycled, or nonpotable water may enable the project to achieve this credit.
  • Water Efficiency Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies (1 pt) Green walls can be utilized as wastewater treatment media for gray water. Other features, such as the incorporation of compost tea from a composting toilet, is another way for green walls to aid in the reduction of wastewater.
  • Energy and Atmosphere Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance (1 to 10 pts) Green walls can provide additional insulation and natural cooling, which reduces a building’s reliance on mechanical systems.
  • Innovation in Design Credits 1-4: Innovation in Design (1 to 4 pts) Green walls may contribute to innovative wastewater or ventilation systems.

Five scenarios were run with UFORE to assess the effect of both green walls and the urban forest on energy consumption.  The scenarios were designed to reflect the impact of different levels of intensification that could occur under Ontario’s new Regional Growth Management Strategy or under any Smart Growth strategy to contain urban sprawl.

  • Scenario 1
    BASELINE: this scenario was based on the reductions in energy consumption provided by existing trees and shrubs in Midtown.
  • Scenario 2
    No Trees: this scenario examined the effect on energy consumption in Midtown when all trees were removed from the area.
  • Scenario 3
    No Big Trees: this scenario examined the effect when all big trees with a diameter-at- breast-height greater than 22cm were removed from the area.
  • Scenario 4
    Trees off Buildings: this scenario examined the effect when trees that provided shade to buildings (within 3-5 meters) were removed.
  • Scenario 5
    Green Walls: this scenario examined the effect when existing trees and shrubs were removed and vertical “hedges” or walls of Juniper species were added within 3 meters of residential (medium and low) houses.
ITC Royal Gardenia
ITC Royal Gardenia

The Royal Gardenia:

  • The Royal Gardenia is the worlds largest LEED Platinum rated hotel.
  • The Royal Gardenia deals with this in a bold and unique way. For a start, the hotel’s Atrium lobby is not air-conditioned. Leading you into the hotel is just a simple glass arch. There are no doors and the whole lobby is wind-cooled. In addition to a square lotus fountain in the middle, the lobby features vertical hanging gardens with a mix of plants that are watered using drip irrigation.
  • The hotel is one of the first hotels in India to create the concept of vertical hanging gardens that are located at the main lobby and the Cubbon Pavilion, the coffee shop. These gardens rise towards the ceiling. Lighting is provided from natural sources or through an energy efficient lighting system.

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Optimization of Indian building design using genetic algorithm

Introduction

 The energy performance of a building depends on a high number of parameters. It is determined by its response as a complete system to the outdoor environment and the indoor conditions. Improved levels of performance require the coherent application of measures which altogether optimize the performance of the complete building system. Given the number of individual attributes that have to be combined to make a single building, the number of possible designs is very large, and determining the most efficient one is a complex problem.

Optimization of building energy performance is more complex in the case of Indian buildings. While in some cold European regions only heating energy consumption is usually considered, the Indian climate makes it essential to consider both heating and cooling energy uses. Varying some parameters of the building over their ranges of practical values can have opposite effects on heating and cooling energy consumptions. It is evident that an insulated building envelope helps in reducing the heating demand. But in summer, the outdoor night temperature being generally lower than the required indoor temperature, un-insulated but high thermal capacity walls allow for the evacuation of the heat stored in the building during the day, leading to the reduction of air-conditioning need. One important question is raised: what is the wall composition that leads to the lowest energy consumption in both seasons? The answer is not straightforward.

The main characteristics of the two sided problem are: a large multi-dimensional space to be searched, a range of different variable types and a non-linear objective function. Using genetic algorithms to solve such problems is a good alternative that allows us to identify not only the best design, but a set of good solutions.

Design variables

 In cold countries there is not a real need for summer air-conditioning except where internal gains are high such as concert halls or opera houses. Our situation being different, in the present work, the objective function can be taken as being the sum of the heating and air conditioning energy loads.

In order to find the optimal design of a building, we have to compare the energy performance of a large number of configurations, which needs the computation of the heating and cooling loads for each of them. In the optimization approach, we propose to use a simplified procedure that is more straightforward and easier.

The losses across the envelope and the gross free gains depend on the lateral surface of the building, the type of used partitions as well as glazed surfaces on each of the facades. The shape and the dimensions of the solar protections have direct impact on the amount of the solar free gains received by the glazed areas. The vastness of the optimisation problem would itself be a problem; therefore we have defined a set of possible configurations, by combining different cases of these design variables, taken inside reasonable values. The resulting set of configurations defines the space of research of our problem.

While keeping a constant volume, we can vary the dimensions of the building envelope and its shape. We can consider a simple cell-test having a rectangular shape with a fixed volume V or similarly a fixed floor area. For the opaque partitions i.e. walls and roofs we can consider different types of roofing (based on their insulation) and different kinds of walls (with different inertia and levels of insulation). Facades of the building can also be glazed, for such a case we can choose between simple and double glazing that differ by their transmission.

An efficient solar protection should allow for minimizing the cooling load without excessive increase in the heating load. This means that the shadowed portion of the glazed area should be as large as possible in summer and as low as possible in winter. Knowledge of the shaded part is necessary to compute the gross solar gains. The efficiencies of different sun shading devices can be adjudged from there “solar factors”; they are defined as the ratios of the received solar radiation in the presence of the shadowing device over the radiation that would be received in its absence.

Courtyards are considered ‘the spaces through which a building breathes’. They are an efficient element of passive feature in a building. However there is an optimal size for a courtyard; a very large courtyard breaks the unity of the building while a small one becomes more like a duct. A building with a given foot-print needs a courtyard that is a fixed percentage of the foot-print area. This criterion may form one of constraints in our case.

Genetic algorithms

 Genetic algorithms have proved their efficiency in dealing with different optimization problems such as the optimization of building thermal design and control and solar hot water systems as well as the design of thermally comfortable buildings and the control of artificial lights. These techniques belong to a class of probabilistic search methods that strike a remarkable balance between exploration and exploitation of the search space. Genetic algorithms are initiated by selecting a population of randomly generated solutions for the considered problem. They move from one generation of solutions to another by evolving new solutions using the objective evaluation, selection, crossover and mutation operators.

A basic genetic algorithm has three main operators that are carried out at every iteration:

  • Reproduction: chromosomes or solutions of the current generation are copied to the next one with some probability based on the value they achieve for the objective function which is also called fitness.
  • Crossover: randomly selected pairs of chromosomes are mated creating new ones that will be inserted in the next generation.
  • Mutation: it is an occasional random alteration of the allele of a gene.

While the selection operator for reproduction is useful for creating a new generation that is globally better than the preceding one, crossover brings diversity to the population by handling the genes of the created chromosomes and mutation introduces the necessary hazard to an efficient exploration of the research space. It makes the algorithm likely to reach all the points of research space. Before developing a genetic algorithm, we must choose the encoding that will be used to represent an eventual solution of the problem by a chromosome where the value of each variable is represented by one or several genes. The quality of the developed algorithm depends essentially on the adopted encoding strategy and its adequacy to the used crossover and mutation operators, while respecting the nature of variables and the constraints of the problem.

The developed algorithm

 In this work, a genetic algorithm needs to be developed in order to provide a method for obtaining a set of optimal architectural configurations. There are few things which are quite clear even before we start, for example, having a large southern facade is beneficial because it is the sunniest in winter and the least in summer. But it is not desirable to have a building with a large lateral surface because it increases the heat loss through the envelope. A compromise needs to be worked out in such type of area.

Conclusion

 The energy problem presented in this paper is particularly interesting. While it is relatively easy to find the best characteristics of a building under winter or summer conditions separately, tackling the two problems simultaneously is more complex. There is a trade-off that has to be done between the two seasons requirements. An optimization algorithm coupling the genetic algorithms’ techniques to the thermal assessment tool needs to be developed for Indian buildings. This algorithm further can be used to identify the best configurations from both energetic and economic points of view. Genetic algorithms represent a simple and very efficient approach for the solution of non-linear combinatorial optimization problems. Although Genetic Algorithms find good solutions without exploring the whole space of research, yet they need the evaluation of a large number of building configurations. The algorithm presents also the big advantage of converging not only toward the best solution but toward a set of configurations all of a high quality and diverse enough to allow the user to choose the most adequate one to his personal considerations that are not necessarily quantifiable. The fact that the required result is a set of very good solutions (and not the best one) means that good evaluation accuracy is sufficient.

Architecture Of Fiction & Fantasy

PROLOGUE

Architecture of fiction and fantasy have always amazed us through their creative adaptation of certain existing ideas in architecture or their invention of new styles to serve as an image of some futuristic or fantastic city. It is not far from truth to state that the essence of a science fiction movie or a fantasy novel is in the way their architecture reflects the modern ways of life, futuristic technologies etc. To understand their significance better, discussed here are examples of the architecture of a future city and its lifestyle (Metropolis(1927)), a fantasy city in ancient times (The Lord Of The Rings: The Fellowship Of The Ring(2001)) and a fictional city in an imaginary planet (Star Wars(1977)).

METROPOLIS

Metropolis is a science fiction film of 1927 directed by Fritz Lang. It is a German Expressionist film and the most expensive silent film ever made. The film tells the story of the struggle between an upper Elite class of citizens and the oppressed Workers in the future city Metropolis.

The image of the city conveyed by Lang is very dark and mechanical. The film opens by showing gigantic pistons, gears and tall chimneys spewing smoke. The city of Metropolis is differentiated into two zones. The Elites live in the towering skyscrapers and Art Deco buildings rising above the ground while the Workers have a miserable underground city. The underground city is accessed by elevators and the ground above is supported by large tapering steel piers. The buildings below are plain cubical masses with an array of cut-out windows. This monotonous image coupled with the dark underground city only to be illuminated by artificial lighting gives the viewers a symbolic image of the backward working class people.

All the machinery that runs Metropolis are situated in this worker’s city and is the integral part of their monotonous life.

The traffic in the city above the ground runs by means of suspended skyways connecting the various buildings. There are separate paths for pedestrians and vehicles. The buildings above are a combination of the skyscrapers in New York which Lang visited and Art Deco aesthetics which was considered a modernized version of architecture during those times. The huge and dominating size of the buildings clearly depicts a powerful and industrialized metropolis. An example of this is The New Tower Of Babel,the brain of Metropolis which is inspired from the historical Tower Of Babel. It is the highest structure in the city. No building in Metropolis has been ornamented and tends to be moving towards the International Style which was growing popular. The most clever part of the architecture is how the city hides the tiresome and displeasing machinery underground and exposes the majestic and beautiful skyscrapers.

It is amazing that Fritz Lang could conceive in the 1920s what a developed city in the future would look like. The structures which we may think as impossible today may as well be our probable future. The M-Machine The underground worker’s city.

HOBBITON

Hobbiton is a village of hobbits or halflings who appear in the Lord Of The Rings series of books by J.R.R.Tolkein which was later visualized into a movie series in 2001. The hobbits are described to be living in “hobbit holes” which are dwellings dug into hillsides and so positioned to get the best possible view.

Tolkein explains the comforts of a hobbit hole in his novel The Hobbit as given below. The doors and windows of a hobbit hole are perfectly round like portholes having knobs in the middle. The underground house is a tunnel with rooms opening into both sides of the central pathway. The interiors are described as having “panelled walls, and floors tiled and carpeted, provided with polished chairs”. The best rooms were situated on the side having windows which overlooked the gardens and meadows. All rooms – bedrooms, bathrooms, cellars, pantries etc. – are situated on the same floor. A typical plan of a hobbit hole is shown here.

Hobbit holes doesn’t require much heating or cooling because they are built underground. These holes blend with slopes of the hill making the whole village appear one with the landscape. The lush green meadows on which the village is built has been preserved completely with little construction done, apart from small roads and chimneys rising from the holes. The hillsides are also used for grazing and extensive gardens for hobbits. Overall, Hobbiton serves as a good example of organic architecture.

CORUSCANT

Coruscant is a planet that appears in the Star Wars Series. It is a galactic center and serves as a political hub of the galaxy.

The entire surface of Coruscant is covered by kilometers high skyscrapers and has a population of several trillion. The skyline of Coruscant is so dominated by the skyscrapers that it shuns the existing natural features like mountains and oceans. The cities are divided into levels, megablocks, blocks and sub blocks and each are numbered for ease of location. The lower levels of Coruscant is an underworld city where natural light would never reach because of the skyscraper canopy. This city is artificially illuminated and consists of only prehistoric ruins along with crime ridden clubs.

All natural water bodies are drained and water is stored in caverns under the city due to overpopulation. Coruscant followed zone planning dividing the zones as governmental and senetorial, financial, residential, commercial, industrial and manufacturing.

As Coruscant orbited far from its star, orbital mirrors are installed to reflect the sun’s light and heat. The orbital garbage treatment system of Coruscant is most interesting. Non-recyclable garbages are shot into orbit around Coruscant and garbage ships collects them from time to time. Dangerous and toxic materials are even shot directly to the star.

Coruscant also faced the problem of high carbon dioxide content released by its occupants each day. So thousands of Carbon Dioxidedampers are installed in the atmosphere to remove excess Carbon Dioxide. The foundations of the skyscrapers are massive and extend deep into the planet’s crust with power relays running near the planet’s core. The trasportation in Coruscant is by air accounting for the heights of the skyscrapers, some even rising above the clouds. It is interesting to note that many architectural characteristics of Coruscant resembles that of Metropolis which was made almost 75 years ago.

CONCLUSION

These writers, directors or artists share a common gift of being able to imagine the type of surroundings that would exist in varying circumstances. It is not only a display of their creativity, but a vision which fills one with awe and curiosity of the potential of mankind. Instead of passing it away as fantasy, architects should study them and get inspired to produce new innovations in this field. Architecture is ever changing with time and fictional architecture can be rightly considered as the stepping stones.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  • Wikipedia, Fritz Lang’s Metropolis, J.R.R.Tolkein’s The Hobbit,
  • Wookiepedia
  • R. S. Jayakrishnan, B.Arch(2007-12), IIT Roorkee.

PRACTICAL APPROACH OF VASTU SHASTRA IN ARCHITECTURE

AUSPICIOUS  DAYS TO START CONSTRUCTION

  •  SUNDAY:  FEAR OF FIRE
  • MONDAY:  PAECE, PROSPERITY & HAPPINESS
  • TUESDAY:  NEGATIVE  EFFECTS
  • WEDNESDAY:  GOOD FOR WEALTH, FAME & FAMILY
  • THURSDAY:  LONGLIFE, NAME & FAME
  • FRIDAY:  MENTAL PEACE & HAPPINESS, FUNCTIONS
  • SATURDAY:  LOSS OF WEALTH, PEACE & LIFE.

AUSPICIOUS  MONTHS TO START CONSTRUCTION

  • MARCH-APRIL(CHAITRA):  FEAR OF FIRE
  • APRIL-MAY (VAISHAKH):  AUSPICIOUS
  • MAY-JUNE ( JAISHSTHA ):  FEAR OF DEATH
  • JUNE-JULY ( ASHADHA ):  LOSS OF DOMESTIC ANIMAL
  • JULY-AUGUST ( SHRAWANA ):  GOOD FOR FAMILY
  • AUGUST-SEPTEMBER ( BHADRA ):  ILLNESS & TROUBLES
  • OCT-NOVEMBER ( KARTIKA ):  PROSPERITY
  • NOV- DEC ( MARGASHEESHA ):  TROUBLES, FEAR
  • DEC-JAN ( PUASHA ):  FEAR OF FIRE & PROBLEMS

IMPORTANCE  OF  COLOURS  IN  VASTU

  • DARK  RED:    LOVE & AFFECTION
  • MEDIUM  RED:  HEALTH & FULL OF LIFE
  • BRIGHT RED:  DESIRE
  • DARK PINK:  FESTIVITY, MORE FEMANINE
  • MEDIUM  PINK:  TENDERNESS & SOFTNESS
  • DARK  ORANGE:  AMBITIOUS
  • MEDIUM  ORANGE:  FIGHTING SPIRIT & ENTHUSIASM
  • LIGHT  ORANGE:  WITH SPEED
  • DARK  BROWN:  APPROPRIATE
  • MEDIUM  YELLOW:  GOOD
  • LIGHT  YELLOW:  INTELLIGENCE
  • DARK  YELLOW:  ENERGETIC
  • LIGHT  GOLDEN:  HUMANITY
  • MEDIUM  GOLDEN:  PROSPERITY
  • DARK  GOLDEN:  LUXURY
  • MEDIUM  GREEN:  OPENNESS & PRACTICAL
  • DARK  GREEN:  INNOCENCE
  • MEDIUM  BLUE:  IDEAL
  • DARK  BLUE:  HONESTY  &  DEVOTION
  • LIGHT  BLUE:  PEACE LOVING
  • LIGHT  MEDIUM  BLUE:  KINDNESS
  • LIGHT  BRINGEL:  TENDERNESS
  • DARK  BRINGEL:  LUXURY

DESIGNING PROCEDURE AS PER VASTU

  • MARK NORTH DIRECTION ON THE SITE PLAN
  • PUT BRAHMA ESTHAN ON THE SITE PLAN.
  • ARRANGE VARIOUS ZONES OF VASTU OVER THE SITE PLAN.
  • PUT MAIN GATE IN THE  PLOT FROM THE ZONE OF HIGH POSITIVE ENERGY.
  • ALLOW THE SET BACKS TO BE LEFT AS PER DEV. AUTHORITY NORMS
  • ENSURE THE RECTANGULARITY OF THE PLOT, LIMITISE THE DESIGNING ONLY IN RECTANGULAR PORTION, REST MAY BE LEFT FOR REMEDIES.
  • ARRANGE THE SPACES AS PER VASTU TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLIENT.
  • ENSURE THAT MAIN ENTRY DOOR ( DEHRI ) FACES NORTH OR EAST  DIRECTION.
  • NORTH AND EAST OF THE PLOT SHOULD BE LEFT OPEN IF POSSIBLE FOR POSITIVE ENERGIES TO FLOW IN.
  • SOUTH AND WEST MAY BE PLANNED HEAVY TO CHECK THE FLOW OF NEGATIVE ENERGIES IN THE PLOT.
  • PUJA IN N-E ZONE OF THE PLOT, ONE SHOULD FACE EAST WHILE PERFORMING PUJA.
  • WATER BORING IN NORTH TO EAST (AVOIDING EXACTLY N-E) ZONE.

 VASTU : RESIDENTIAL COLONIES

 HOW TO DESIGN A RESIDENTIAL COLONY :

  • LOCATE  NORTH  DIRECTION ON THE SITE PLAN
  • LOCATE THE CENTRE-POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAN
  • LOCATE ENTRY GATE OF THE COLONY IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE.
  • THE LAYOUT PLAN SHOULD BE PREPARED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAN SHOULD NOT FALL IN ANY PLOT, IT SHOULD BE IN OPEN SPACE SUCH AS PARK, ROAD AND PREFERABLY THE INTERSECTION OF ROADS, WHICH CAN BE  SUITABLY LANDSCAPED.
  • THE LAYOUT PLAN OF THE COLONY SHOULD BE PREPARED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE HOUSES MAY FACE EAST, NORTH OR WEST.
  • SOUTH FACING PLOTS SHOULD BE AVOIDED DURING LAYOUT-PLANNING.
  • NORTH-EAST ZONE MAY BE PLANNED AS OPEN SPACE FOR PARK, PLAYGROUND, TOT-LOT ETC.
  • THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  • STORAGE OF WATER IN OVER HEAD TANKS SHOULD BE PLACED IN NORTH, NORTH-WEST ZONE.
  • THE ELECTRICAL METER, TRANSFORMER, GENERATOR ETC. SHOULD BE PLANNED IN SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE ENTIRE LAYOUT.
  • THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.
  • NORTH-WEST ZONE IS RECOMMENDED FOR ANY COMMUNITY SEPTIC TANK OR SOAK WELL, IN CASE THE SEWER SYSTEM IS NOT AVAILABLE.

  VASTU  IN  COMMERCIAL  BUILDINGS:

HOW TO PROCEED FOR DESIGNING OF COMMERCIAL  BUILDINGS AS PER VASTU

  • MARK CENTRE POINT OF THE PLOT, LAY NORTH DIRECTION OVER THE SITE PLAN AND PUT ALL THE VASTU DIRECTIONS OVER THE PLAN TO DIVIDE THE LAND INTO VARIOUS VASTU ZONES.
  • LOCATE ENTRY GATE OF THE COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE, PREFER MAINGATE FROM NORTH, NORTH – EAST OR EAST DIRECTION.
  • PLACE LOT OF OPENNESS IN EAST AND NORTH ZONE SO THAT MORNING SUN LIGHT IS AVAILABLE IN ABUNDANCE IN THE COMMERCIAL BLDG.
  • THE BUILDING SHOULD BE HIGH IN SOUTH AND WEST ZONE.
  • HEAVY STORAGES, GODOWNS SHOULD BE PLANNED  IN S-W ZONE.
  • PARKING FOR VEHICLES IN NORTH – WEST ZONE, IT CAN BE PLANNED  IN THE BASEMENTS ALSO.
  • GENERATOR ROOM , ELECTRICAL PANEL ROOM SHOULD BE IN SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE BUILDING.
  • THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  • THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.
  • MEZZANINE FLOORS SHOULD BE PROVIDED IN SOUTH OR WEST ZONES.
  • TOILET BLOCK SHOULD BE TOWARDS WEST, NORTH WEST ZONE POSSIBLY.
  • ENSURE THAT THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAAN OF THE PLOT SHOULD BE KEPT OPEN AND NO BEAMS, COLUMN OR WALL SHOULD CROSS OVER THE SAME.
  • THE COMMERCIAL PLOTS ARE GOOD WHOSE FRONT IS WIDER THAN THE BACK.

VASTU : INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS:

  1. NORTH OR EAST FACING PLOTS SELECTED FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS ARE BEST
  2. LOCATE ENTRY GATE OF THE COLONY IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE, PREFER MAINGATE FROM NORTH, NORTH-EAST OR EAST DIRECTION.
  3. GUARDS IN N-W OR NORTH DIRECTION
  4. PLACE LOT OF OPENNESS IN EAST AND NORTH ZONE SO THAT MORNING SUN LIGHT IS AVAILABLE IN ABUNDANCE IN THE INDUSTRIAL PREMISES.
  5. HIGH RISE TREES MAY BE PLANTED IN SOUTH AND WEST ZONE.
  6. HEAVY STORAGES, GODOWNS SHOULD BE PLANNED TO PUT UP IN S-W ZONE
  7. PARKING FOR VEHICLES IN NORTH- WEST ZONE
  8. ADMINITRATIVE BLOCK  IN THE INDUSTRIAL SET UP SHOULD BE ERECTED IN NORTH OR EAST ZONE OF THE PLOT, LOWER IN HEIGHT OF INDUSTRIAL PLANT.
  9. GENERATOR ROOM , ELECTRICAL ROOM SHOULD BE IN SOUTH-WEST ZONE OF THE INDUSTRY.
  10. STAFF QUARTERS IN S-E OR N-W ZONE OF THE INDUSTRIAL PLOT.
  11. THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  12. THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.

INDUSTRIAL  PREMISES :  Ist CASE STUDY

IT IS A BIG INDUSTRIAL PLANT EXISTING AT KASHIPUR, UTTRANCHAL WHICH  MANUFACTURE STEEL, IT HAS GOT

  • ENTRY FROM S-E ZONE
  • N-E EXTENDED
  • FURNACE IN S-E, S ZONE
  • SOUTH, S-W AND WEST ARE HEAVY
  • NORTH, N-E AND EAST ARE COMPARATIVELY VERY LIGHT
  • LABOUR QUARTERS IN WEST ZONE.
  • CENTRE POINT IS FREE AND NOT LOADED.
  • WATER BORING IN EAST ZONE
  • FINISHED GODOWN TOWARDS NORTH ZONE

INDUSTRIAL  PREMISES : 2nd CASE  STUDY

LAYOUT PLAN OF AN  INDUSTRY :

  • THE MAIN ENTRY OF THE INDUSTRY IS EXISTING FROM THE ZONE OF   WEST AND SOUTH-WEST.
  • VAST AREA HAS BEEN LEFT AS OPEN IN S-W, WEST, AND N-W ZONE   AS SHOWN IN THE SITE PLAN.
  • THE ENTRY TO THE INDUSTRIAL UNIT IS ALSO FROM SOUTH   DIRECTION.
  • TEMPLE, DIRECTOR RESIDENCES, SCHOOL ETC. HAS BEEN   PROVIDED IN THE N-E ZONE.
  • THERE IS EXISTING ADMINISTRATIVE BLOCK  IN THE EAST DIRECTION
  • PART OF FACTORY, FINISHED GODOWN AND  LABOUR QUARTERS    ARE EXISTING IN S-E ZONE.
  • MAIN FACTORY AREA IS BETWEEN S-E AND SOUTH ZONE
  • WATER BORING IS IN  NORTH- AEST DIRECTION OF THE FACTORY

VASTU :HOTELS & RESTAURANTS:

HOW TO PROCEED FOR DESIGNING AS PER VASTU

  1. MARK CENTRE POINT OF THE PLOT, LAY NORTH DIRECTION OVER THE SITE PLAN AND PUT ALL THE VASTU DIRECTIONS OVER THE PLAN TO DIVIDE THE LAND INTO VARIOUS VASTU ZONES.
  2. LOCATE ENTRY GATE IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE, PREFER MAINGATE FROM NORTH, NORTH – EAST OR EAST DIRECTION.
  3. PLACE LOT OF OPENNESS IN EAST AND NORTH ZONE WITH PROPER LANDSCAPING.
  4. THE BUILDING SHOULD BE HIGH IN SOUTH AND WEST ZONE.
  5. PARKING FOR VEHICLES IN NORTH – WEST ZONE, IT CAN BE PLANNED  IN THE BASEMENTS ALSO.
  6. GENERATOR ROOM , ELECTRICAL PANEL ROOM SHOULD BE IN SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE PLOT.
  7. THE KITCHEN SHOULD BE ESSENTIALLY TOWARDS THE SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE PLOT. ESPECIALLY THE MAJOR COOKING SHOULD BE PERFORMED  EAST FACING. THE WASH AREA NEAR THE KIT. SHOULD BE TOWARDS NORTH OR EAST ZONE OF KITCHEN.
  8. THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  9. THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.
  10. TOILET BLOCK SHOULD BE TOWARDS WEST, NORTH WEST ZONE POSSIBLY.
  11. ENSURE THAT ALL WCs SHOULD FACE SOUTH, S-W OR WEST DIRECTIONS ONLY WHILE IN USE. IN ANY CASE THEY SHOULD NOT FACE EAST OR NORTH DIRECTIONS.
  12. ENSURE THAT THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA    ESTHAAN OF THE PLOT SHOULD BE KEPT OPEN AND NO    BEAMS, COLUMN OR WALL SHOULD CROSS OVER THE SAME.
  13. THE OWNER OF THE HOTEL, G. MANAGERS AND ACCOUNT   PERSONNEL SHOULD FACE NORTH DIRECTIONS WHILE   SITTING IN THEIR OFFICES.
  14. THE RECEPTION OF THE HOTEL SHOULD NOT FACE SOUTH   DIRECTION, IT CAN BE TOWARDS EAST, NORTH OR WEST   DIRECTION.
  15. PREFER THAT ALL THE BEDS IN THE ROOMS/SUITES MAY BE   PLACED IN EAST HEADED OR SOUTH HEADED WAY TO THE   EXENT POSSIBLE.
  16. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT ANGULARITY OF THE SPCES SHOULD      BE AVOIDED. PREFER THAT RECTANGULAR SPACES ARE        CREATED WHILE ANY DEVELOPMENT.
  17. THE INTERIORS, COLOUR SCHEME AND PLANTATIONS   SHOULD BE PROVIDED TO MAKE THE SPACE MORE LIVELY,   INCREASING POSITIVITY IN THE HOTELS.

VASTU :GROUP HOUSING  SCHEME

VASTU  IN  MULTY STOREYED RESIDENTIAL  BUILDINGS

  • LOCATE  NORTH  DIRECTION ON THE SITE PLAN
  • LOCATE THE CENTRE-POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAN
  • LOCATE ENTRY GATE OF THE COLONY IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE.
  • THE LAYOUT PLAN SHOULD BE PREPARED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAN SHOULD NOT FALL IN ANY PLOT, IT SHOULD BE IN OPEN SPACE SUCH AS PARK, ROAD AND PREFERRABLY   THE INTERSECTION OF ROADS, WHICH CAN BE  SUITABLY LANDSCAPED.
  • THE LAYOUT PLAN OF THE MULTI STOREYED BUILDING SHOULD BE PREPARED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE HOUSES MAY FACE EAST, NORTH OR WEST.
  • SOUTH FACING PLOTS SHOULD BE AVOIDED DURING PLANNING.
  • NORTH-EAST ZONE MAY BE PLANNED AS OPEN SPACE FOR PARK, PLAYGROUND,TOT-LOT ETC.
  • THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  • THE ELECTRICAL METER, TRANSFORMER, GENERATOR ETC. SHOULD BE   PLANNED IN SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE ENTIRE LAYOUT.
  • THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO   EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.
  • NORTH-WEST ZONE IS RECOMMENED FOR ANY COMMUNITY SEPTIC TANK OR SOAK WELL, IN CASE THE SEWER SYSTEM IS NOT AVAILABLE.

 VASTU OF JAIPUR

  • THE CITY WAS BUILD IN 1727 ACCORDING TO THE   SHILPSHASTRA,THE ANCIENT HINDU TRETISE ON   ARCHITECTURE,BY MAHARAJA SAWAI JAI SINGH II AFTER   WHOM IT IS NAMED.
  • JAIPUR NESTLES AMONGST THE HILLS OF THE ARAVALLI   RANGES,WHICH RUN DIAGONALLY ACROSS RAJASTHAN IN   A NORTH-EAST TO SOUTH-WEST DIRECTION,JUST WEST   OF JAIPUR. N-W IS “NAHARGARH FORT”.
  • JAI SINGH’S JAIPUR IS DIVIDED INTO SEVEN   RECTANGULAR SECTIONS BY WIDE,WELL LAID  MAIN   ROADS INTERSECTED BY STREETS.
  • THE OLD CITY IS ENCIRCLED BY A FORTIFIED WALL   WITH SEVEN GATES.OUTSIDE THESE WALLS IS MODERN   JAIPUR.
  • THE NORTH EAST OF THE CITY HAS VAST OPEN AREA.
  • A  HUGE   LAKE CALLED JAL-MAHAL WAS PROVIDED     TOWARDS THE NORTH-EASTERN ZONE OF THE CITY,   ALONGWITH A TEMPLE KANAK VRINDAVAN.
  • THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAAN OF THE   CITY FALLS IN THE VAST OPEN AREA  NEAR TO WHICH   IS THE TEMPLE “GOVIND JI”.
  • THE MAIN ENTRY IS IN THE NORTH EAST CALLED    “JORAWARSINGH   GATE”.
  • THE ENTRY FROM THE EAST DIRECTION DENOMINATE   THE RISING SUN HENCE NAMED AS “SURAJ POLE GATE”.
  • THE  ENTRY FROM THE WEST DIRECTION NOTIFIES RISING   MOON, SO NAMED AS  “CHANDPOL   GATE.”
  • THE SOUTH WEST HAS THE RIGHTLY PLACED   “TOPKHANADESH”,WHERE MANUFACTURING OF   WAEPONS WAS DONE.
  • SOUTH EAST HAD THE FORCES ,THE SOILDERS   KNNOWN AS “TOPKHANA HAZURI”.
  • THE PINK COLOUR PAINTED ALL OVER THE CITY   RENDERS THE ENVIRONMENT OF FESTIVITY,   TENDERNESS, PEACE AND PROSPERITY IN THE CITY.

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Vastu Shastra in Indian Architecture

INDEX:

  • INTRODUCTION OF VASTU SHASTRA
  • RELEVANCE OF VASTU SHASTRA : RELIGIOUS APPROACH
  • VASTU PURUSH, MANDALAS
  • VASTU : THE SCIENCE OF DIRECTIONS
  • VASTU PRINCIPLES & ITS EFFECTS
  • SITE SELECTION,
  • SHAPE OF PLOTS
  • ORIENTATION OF PLOTS
  • PRACTICAL APPROACH OF VASTU IN ARCHITECTURE
  • DESIGNING TIPS
  • VASTU IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS, COLONIES ETC.
  • VASTU FOR COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
  • CASE STUDIES & PRACTICAL REMEDIES
  • VASTU & INTERIORS
  • FENGSHUI : THE CHINESE SCIENCE.
  • VASTU & LANDSCAPING

VASTU : AN  INTRODUCTION (a scientific approach):

  • VASTU : THE GEO ENERGY
  • VASTU REVA VASTU – means all materials are forms of universal energies .
  • The Earth is a living organism  with a lot of consciousness  permeating through every atom.
  • Vastu teaches us to under stand the energy that surrounds us.
  • Vastu teaches us ways to turn the energy into material forms.
  • If we live in harmony with the subtle nature, both our physical and mental health will be safeguarded.
  • “Energy is the very essence of life”

Important Elements of Energy are as follows:

  1. Gravitational  forces
  2. Electro – magnetic radiations
  3. Strong nuclear force
  4. Weak nuclear force
  5. Pranic force or “Prana”

All these forces produce various types of energies – Potential, kinetic, magnetic, etc.

  • Pranic energy is prevalent throughout the universe in every material of the world, solid, liquid, gas.
  • Positive energy is beneficial and negative is harmful.
  • Vastu aims at maximising the generation and accumulation of positive energy.
This is done by the following:
  1. Light   : Sufficient natural light for comfortable living.
  2. Air       : Pure fresh air continuously blowing in and out of the house.
  3. Water  : For drinking and living.
  4. Energy: concentrating of different shapes and forms by using proper positive material.

The basic five elements:

  • Prithivi: Earth
  • Jal: Water
  • Akash: Space
  • Vaayu: Air
  • Agni: Fire
  1. There is an invisible and constant relation between these elements used in making buildings.
  2. Through corrective measures, one can get the maximum benefit of the suitable forces of nature and the five elements.
  3. People live happily in pleasant atmosphere.
  4. Vastu principles make an attempt to get full benefit of nature’s bounty.
  5. Vastu brings mental peace, happiness, prosperity and good fate to human beings.
  6. Vastu is the Indian science of Architecture.

RELEVANCE OF VASTU SHASTRA: THE  RELIGIOUS APPROACH

  • In the ancient land of India, the text,   Mayamata, written in Sanskrit nearly   a thousand years ago, describes the   science of architecture . That   Embodies the earth as a place where   both mortals and immortals live. It is   called vastu shastra.
  • The word vastu is derived from the word   vasu, or the earth,
  • Shastra, is defined as “science or   technology”.
  • Other translations define vastu to mean “the place where people dwell”.
  • The place may be the earth, the land itself, or a structure where people may reside.
  • Together, these words describe a methodo-logy of constructing a building a site that brings harmony and well-being to those who would dwell within.
  • Vastushastra, the ancient architecture, has suddenly assumed tremendous significance.
  • In this brief introduction, the intention is to  give a broad overall picture of the vastushastra with some examples
  • The the subject of vastu which means the environment. We can regard this as good practices of design of buildings and cities, which will provide , life in harmony with physical as well as metaphysical forces. This provides   guidelines for design of buildings and planning of cities so that they will bring health, wealth and peace to the inhabitants.
  • With the passing of the ages empires are created and destroyed, new cultures appear and then again fade, like changing seasons into the shadows of eternity. Vanishing into oblivion, all that remains of those that were once great and powerful in this world are but a handful of relics. Time, the destroyer of all things, vanquishes even the most invincible empires leaving behind their remnants to be marveled at by future civilizations. And marvel we do at the wonders of the past, especially the architectural wonders. Be it the pyramids of Egypt, the cathedrals of Rome, the Parthenon of Athens, the Forbidden City in Beijing,  our mind is at once awed by the beauty and grandeur of ancient architecture.
  • Modern society has viewed much of the world’s ancient architecture & art as “simply decorative” or, as a tribute to God; not that it might have any “practical” function.
  • However, recent studies in the field of sacred architecture (Vastu Shastra) by men like Keith Critchlow of the Royal College of Art in London have uncovered hidden dimensions revealing a far-reaching connection between architecture and the nature of existence.
  • Critchlow, perhaps the best-known advocate of the theory of sacred architecture, believes that basic architectural principles on the physical level are integral with structure on the metaphysical level.
  • Throughout the world it’s hard to find a place where sacred architecture is as developed a science as is that found in India. India’s ancient temples and palaces are certainly among the finest ever built. From the Taj Mahal, the seventh wonder of the world, to the Pagodas of Tamil Nadu, from the Himalayan hill shrines to the great temple at Jagannatha Puri ,The ancient well designed city of “Jaipur”.Which was never know for war but always remained a symbol of prosperity,peace & friendship. India is a veritable treasure-house of sacred architecture. In fact there are more existing examples of sacred architecture in India than in all other countries of the world combined. VastuShastra The knowledge of sacred architecture in India has existed in the oral tradition since before the Vedic Age, some five thousand years ago.
  • From the oral tradition it was later recorded in the Sanskrit mantras and compiled under the title Vastu Shastra.   According to Indian authorities the Vastu Shastra   is possibly the oldest known architectural treatise in the world today.
  • The word shastra   means literature or more accurately “enlightened literature.”
  • Among the vastushastra texts are Mansar, Maymata, Vishwakarma Vastushastra and Samrangana Sutradhara which is credited to Raja Bhoja. The others are believed to have been authored by ancient saints and sages. These include Lord Vishwakarma who is architect to the gods in the Nagara or northern traditions, and Maya who is architect to the gods in the Dravida or Southern tradition. In the northern tradition Maya is regarded as architect to the danavas or demons. To give some idea about the size of the text, Mansar comprises 5400 verses organized in a total of 70 chapters.

LITERATURE ON VASTU SHATRA

  1. TOWN PLANNING: SKAND PURANA.
  2. RESIDENTIAL PLANNING: AGNEYE PURANA.
  3. PLANNING OF TEMPLES: VAYU PURAN
  4. PLANNING OF RESIDENCE & TEMPLES: GARUR PURAN
  5. PLANNING OF WATER STORAGE,WELLS,PONDS: NARAD PURAN
  6. DESIGNING OF COMMUNITY CENTERS & CARVING ETC: MATASYA PURAN

Puranic texts such as Agni Purana, Matsya Purana and their Agmic versions in the Dravidian traditions.

 OTHER REFERENCES

  • SAMRANGAN SUTRADHAR.
  • VISHVAKARMA PRAKASH.
  • VASTU RATNAWALI.
  • VISHWAKARMI SHILP.
  • SHILP SANGHRALEY.
  • CHITRA LAKSHAN.
  • MAYAMAT MANSAR.
  • RAJVALLABHAM.
  • VASTU SANDESH.
  • MUHURT MARTAND

VASTU PURUSH :MANDAL:

VASTU PURUSH : THE MYTHOLOGY

  • Hindu mythology explains the history of how things have come to pass.
  • In the beginning, the first living creature was Brahma.  He is the creator of the Universe and the first god in the Hindu triad: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.  But, Brahma had a nasty habit of experimenting with some rather impractical creations.  Out of the Void, Brahma created a large and monstrous creature that grew so rapidly and large that its shadow fell across the Earth as an eternal eclipse.  Then this ever-expanding Monster began to devour everything in its path for nothing could satisfy its insatiable hunger.
  • Shiva and Vishnu complained bitterly to the elder Brahma.  They begged that something be done before all of Creation was destroyed by this Creature.
  • Brahma listened to these complaints and it made him aware of his sovereignty to the other creations.  He then called forth the asthadigapalakas, the devas of the eight cardinal directions.  Together they overpowered the Great Monster and in one cosmic tackle, they held it flat against the Earth.  The god Brahma jumped in the middle and held the Monster down.  He then employed forty-five gods to join him and help hold it in place; their positions can be seen on the classic mandela of the Vastu Grid.
  • But, the Monster lamented “Why am I being punished for being the very thing you made me?”  And, alas, Brahma heeded to its complaint.  “We shall compromise”, Brahma said.  So, he made the Monster immortal and promised that he would be worshipped by any mortal that built a structure over him.  The Monster was pleased and Brahma then named him Vastu Purusa and blessed him with these words: “All works on the earth will have to be commenced and concluded only after propitiating you”.  In essence, without respecting Vastu Purusa nothing will happen on the earth.
  • The Mandala grid is constructed the same way as the bagua, which is used in Chinese geomancy, with every direction having significance in the well being of its residents.  The position of Vastu Pursua and the direction of the natural elements are shown in figure #1.

VASTU SHASTRA: THE SCIENCE OF DIRECTIONS:

The Directions:

  • North (uttar) – This Zone should be kept light or open, clean, it is a source of energy. It is considered the house of Kuber or wealth.
  • North East (Eshan) – Zone of divine powers.
  • North West (Vayavya) – Zone  of Air .
  • South (Dakshin) :The God of death or Yam or the area of freeing one’s soul (moksha).
  • South East (Aagneya) :Zone of fire.Source of health.(related to fire,cooking & food).
  • South West (Naruthya) :Zone of Demons. effects the longivity of life.
  • West:(Paschima) :Zone of Water.
  • East (Purab):Zone of Lord Indra & Lord Sun. It is the second source of energy.

VASTU : PRINCIPALS & EFFECTS

  • VASTU IS A SCIENCE TO ENHANCE :
  • PEACE,HAPPINESS & PROSPERITY.
  • VASTU IS A BALANCE OF POSITIVE ENERGIES.
  • DERIVED FROM FIVE ELEMENTS.
  • WHICH SHOULD BE PROPERLY PLACED AS REQUIRED BY VASTU NORMS.
  • THIS BRINGS HARMONY TO GIVE US THE PEACE,HAPPINESS & PROSPERITY.

SHAPES OF PLOTS:

  • Square Plot
  • Rectangle Plot
  • Circular Plot
  • Decagonal Plot
  • Triangular Plot
  • Wedge Plot
  • Dholak-Shaped Plot
  • L-Shaped Plot
  • Elliptical Plot
  • Bow-shaped Plot
  • Trapezium-Shaped plot
  • Hexagonal Plot
  • Octagonal Plot
  • Dumroo-Shaped Plot
  • Moon-Shaped Plot

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Japanese Gardens

Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Essential Aspects
  • Design Principles
  • Basic rules in the design of  Japanese gardens
  • Elements of Japanese Garden
  • Types of Japanese Gardens
  • Case study
  • Bibliography

Introduction:

  • The art of gardening is believed to be an important part of Japanese culture for many centuries.
  • The garden design in Japan is strongly connected to the philosophy and religion of the country.
  • Shinto, Buddhism and Taoism were used in the creation of different garden styles in order to bring a spiritual sense to the gardens and make them places where people could spend their time in a peaceful way and meditate.

Essential Aspects:

  • The line between garden and its surrounding landscape is not distinct.
  • Gardens incorporate natural and artificial elements and thus, fuse the elements of nature and architecture.
  • In the Japanese garden, the viewer should consider nature as a picture frame into which the garden, or the man- made work of art, is inserted.

Design Principles:

  • Nature is the ideal that you must strive for. You can idealize it, even symbolize it, but you must never create something that nature itself cannot.
  • Balance, or sumi. The proportions and spaces are an essential Design principle
  • The “emptiness” of portions of the garden. This space, or ma, defines the elements around it, and is also defined by the elements surrounding it. It is the true spirit of yin and yang. Without nothing, you cannot have something. It is a central tenet of Japanese gardening.

Formality :

  • Hill and pond and flat styles can be shin (formal), gyo (intermediate) or so (informal).
  • Formal styles were most often found at temples or palaces,
  • the intermediate styles were appropriate for most residences, and
  • the informal style was relegated to peasant huts and mountain retreats. The tea garden is always in the informal style.

Concept of Time and Space:

  • The concept of wabi and sabi:
  • Wabi can denote something one-of-a-kind, or the spirit of something. Sabi defines time or the ideal image of something. While a cement lantern may be one of a kind, it lacks that ideal image. A rock can be old and covered with lichens, but if it is just a round boulder it has no wabi. We must strive to find that balance
  • Both the concepts of ma and wabi/sabi deal with time and space. Where the garden is our space, time is ably presented by the changing seasons. Unlike the western gardener  the Japanese garden devotee visits and appreciates the garden in all the seasons.
The changes with seasons:
  • In spring one revels in the bright green of new buds and the blossoms of the azaleas.
  • In summer you appreciate the contrasts of the lush foliage painted against the cool shadows and the splash of koi in the pond.
  • Fall wrests the brilliant colors from dying leaves as they slip into the deathly hush of winter, the garden buried under a shroud of snow.
  • Winters is as much a garden season in Japan as spring. The Japanese refer to snow piled on the branches of trees as sekku, or snow blossoms, and there is a lantern known as yukimi that is named the snow viewing lantern.
Miegakure or hide and reveal:
  • The fence is a tool to enhance  the concept of miegakure, or hide and reveal.
  • Many of the fence styles offer only the merest of visual screens, and will be supplemented with a screen planting, offering just the ghostly hints of the garden behind. Sometimes a designer will cut a small window in a solid wall to present the passerby with a tantalizing glimpse of what lies beyond.
  • Even if we enter the house to view the garden we may well encounter sode-gaki, or sleeve fences. This is a fence that attaches to an architectural structure, be it a house or another fence, to screen a specific view. To view the garden as a whole one must enter it and become one with the garden. This is the final step in the true appreciation of the garden, to lose oneself in it until time and self have no meaning.

Basic rules in the design of  Japanese gardens:

  • Natural: that should make the garden look as if it grew by itself
  • Asymmetry: that creates the impression of it being natural
  • Odd numbers: It supports the effect of the asymmetry
  • Simplicity: that follows the idea of ‘less is more’
  • Triangle: that is the most common shape for compositions made of stones, plants, etc.
  • Contrast: that creates tension between elements
  • Lines: that can create both tranquility and tension
  • Curves: that softens the effect
  • Openness: that indicates interaction between all elements

Basic elements in Japanese gardens

  • a stone lantern representing four natural elements: earth, water, fire and wind
  • statues of male and female lions, placed at the entrance of the garden in order to protect the garden from intruders, representing the two opposite forces: yin and yang (fire and water, male and female).
  • water basin known as a deer chaser, which keep deer away by making a special sound when filled up
  • the koi fish swimming in ponds, which has a decorative meaning
  • typical Japanese bridge, called a moonbridge, whose purpose is to reflect artistic feelings.

Elements of Japanese Gardens:

  • Ponds, waterfalls, wells, bridges (real or symbolic)
  • Stepping stones, Garden paths
  • Stone water basins, stone lanterns
  • Garden plants and trees
  • Fences and walls
  • Stones

WATER OR IKE:

  • It represents the sea, lake, pond or river in nature.
  • Non geometrical in appearance; in order to preserve the natural shapes, man- made ponds are asymmetrical.
  • The bank of the pond is usually bordered by stones
  • A fountain is sometimes found at the bottom of a hill or hillside or secluded forest.
  • Wells are sometimes found in a Japanese garden.
Paths or tobi-ishi:
  • Usually used in tea gardens.
  • flat stepping stones served to preserve the grass as well as orient the viewer to a specific visual experience.
  • step- stones are found near the veranda or entrance of the house or tea room. The visitor of the house or room is expected to place his shoes on the step- stone before entering.
Water basins & lanterns:
  • Two kinds of stone water basins-
  • kazari- chozubachi, which is kept near the  verandah
  • tsukubai for tea garden
  • Stone lanterns are placed besides prominent water basins whose luminance underscored the unfinished beauty of the tea aesthetic.

Plants:

  • Garden of the 10th to 12th centuries contained cherry, plum trees, pines and willows
  • Influence of the Zen sect and watercolor painting from Southern China transformed the colorful Japanese garden in the Middle Ages.
  • Flowers, flowering plants and shrubs were regarded as signs of frivolity and were replaced by evergreen trees that symbolized eternity.
Trees in Japanese Gardens:
  • Japanese garden is predominately green with its use of evergreen trees.
  • When flowering trees found in Japanese garden  are camelias, specifically the tsubaki and sazanka.

Japanese Fir:
  • Scientific Name: Abies Firma
  • Habitat: Evergreen

  • Texture: Coarse
  • Height: 40’ to 70’
  • Leaf: 1.5″ dark green needles are notched at base; sharp prickly point
  • Flower/Fruit: 3.5 to 5″ brown cones

Japanese stripped-bark maple

  • Scientific Name: Acer capillipes
  • Habit: Deciduous
  • Growth Rate: Moderate
  • Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade; prefers moist, well drained soil
  • Texture: Medium
  • Form: Round head; low branches
  • Height: 30 to 35’
  • Flower/Fruit: Greenish white flowers on 2.5 to 4″ pendulous raceme; attractive samara in fall

Japanese maple :

  • Scientific Name: Acer palmatum
  • Growth Rate: Slow to moderate
  • Site Requirements: Light dappled shade; evenly moist, well drained soil; protect from drying winds
  • Texture: Medium to fine
  • Form: Low; dense rounded top; spreading branches; assumes a layered look
  • Height: 15 to 25′
  • Flower/Fruit: Small red to purple flowers; attractive if viewed closely but insignificant from a distance

Japanese alder :

  • Scientific Name: Alnus japonica
  • Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade; range of soil types including wet and infertile soil
  • Form: Slender, narrow upright habit
  • Height: 12 to 25’
  • Leaf: Oval, narrow leaves
  • Flower/Fruit: Yellow brown to red brown catkins (male flowers); female flowers on short purplish brown strobili which persist until winter

Japanese angelica tree:

  • Scientific Name: Aralia elata
  • Growth Rate: Rapid
  • Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade; range of soil types but prefers moist, well drained soil
  • Texture: Medium
  • Form: Irregular to spreading; often multi-stemmed
  • Height: 20 to 40’
  • Leaf: 3 to 5.5″ compound leaves; yellow to reddish purple fall color
  • Flower/Fruit: 12 to 18″ white flowers in August; purple fruit

Japanese cherry birch :

  • Scientific Name:Betula grossa
  • Growth Rate: Moderate
  • Site Requirements: Sun; moist well drained soil
  • Texture: Medium
  • Form: Pyramidal
  • Height: 20 to 25′
  • Leaf: 2 to 4″ alternate, simple leaves; yellow fall color
  • Flower/Fruit: Nonshowy flowers

Japanese hornbeam:

  • Scientific Name: Carpinus japonica
  • Growth Rate: Slow
  • Site Requirements: Sun to light shade; moist well drained soil but tolerates a range of soil types
  • Texture: Medium
  • Form: Rounded; densely branched; wide spreading branches
  • Height: 20 to 30′
  • Leaf: 2 to 4.5″ leaves; yellow to nonshowy fall color
  • Flower/Fruit: 2 to 2.5″ fruit

Japanese cornel dogwood:

  • Scientific Name:Cornus officinalis
  • Growth Rate: Moderate
  • Site Requirements: Sun to partial shade; range of soil types
  • Texture: Medium
  • Form: Picturesque; multi-stemmed ; low branches; oval to round habit
  • Height: 15 to 25′
  • Leaf: 4″ opposite, simple leaves; purple fall color
  • Flower/Fruit: Cluster of short stalked yellow flowers with drooping bracts on naked stems in early spring; .5″ shiny red fruit in clusters in fall

Japanese cedar:

  • Scientific Name: Cryptomeria japonica
  • Habit: Evergeen
  • Growth Rate: Moderate
  • Site Requirements: Sun to light, high shade; rich deep, well drained soil but will thrive in a range of soil types
  • Texture: Fine to medium
  • Form: Pyramidal; semiformal
  • Height: 50 to 60′
  • Leaf: Awl shaped, bright to blue-green foliage; smooth to the touch; bronze tones in winter, especially if exposed to wind.
  • Flower/Fruit: Small terminal cones

Fences and walls:

  • There are three types of fences:
  • the short fence which extends from the house into the garden
  • an inner fence and an outer fence.
  • Short fences or sodegaki are screens that hide unwanted views or objects.
  • They are about 6 or 7 feet high.
  • Add color and texture to the garden.
  • Materials used are bamboo, wood and twigs of bamboo or tree.

Garden Enclosures:

  • For the garden to be a true retreat, we must first seal it away from the outside world. Once it is enclosed, we must create a method (and a mindset) to enter and leave our microcosm. Fences and gates are as important to the Japanese garden as lanterns and maples.
  • As with most things associated with the garden the fence and gates have deep symbolic meaning as well as specific function. We are encouraged to view the garden as a separate world in which we have no worries or concerns. The fence insulates us from the outside world and the gate is the threshold where we both discard our worldly cares and then prepare ourselves to once again face the world.
  • Courtyards include a modern alfresco (sheltered outdoor living) area with a lush backdrop of plants.
Stones:
  • Stones are fundamental elements of Japanese gardens.
  • Stones used are not quarried by the hand of man, but of stones shaped by nature only
  • Used to construct the garden’s paths, bridges, and walkways.
  • Represent a geological presence where actual mountains are not viewable or present. They are placed in odd numbers and a majority of the groupings reflect triangular shapes
Kasan:
  • They are artificial mountains usually, built in gardens.
  • Generally between one and five of the hills are built.
  • They are made up of ceramics, dried wood or strangely-shaped stones.
Suikinkutsu (Water Harp Hollow):
  • Refers to a relatively small cave or hollow set underneath the ground near a washbasin in the garden.
  • The hollow produces a harp-like echoing sound effect as water drips into the hollow. Thus, it provides a mysterious sound for people strolling through the garden.
  • They are generally located the at gates of the garden.
  • The excess water running over the edge of the tsukubai drops down onto polished pebbles below.
  • Below the ground is another large basin, often a ceramic vase.
Bonsai and bonseki:
  • The art of Bonsai involves the training of everyday shrubs such as pine, cypress, holly, cedar, cherry, maple, and beech to look like old, large trees in miniature form.
  • The trees are usually less than one meter high and kept small by pruning, re-potting, growth pinching, and wiring the branches.
  • Bonseki is the art of developing miniature landscapes which may include smallest of rock pieces to represent mountains.
Scenery Methods:
  • The Japanese garden can include three possible methods for scenery:
  • The first is the reduced scale scenery method. The reduced scale method takes actual natural elements and reproduces them on a smaller scale.
  • The second technique called symbolization and it involves generalization and abstraction; this could be accomplished by using white sand to simulate the ocean.
  • Borrowed views is a technique that refers to artistic use of elements that imply scenes other than those actually portrayed. An example of this would be a painting of a house in the city with a seaside dock in the middle of the street to imply a seascape scene.
TYPES OF JAPANESE GARDENS:
  1. Karesansui Gardens or dry gardens
  2. Tsukiyama Gardens or hill garden
  3. Chaniwa Gardens or tea gardens
KARESANSUI/ DRY GARDENS:
  • Also known as rock gardens and waterless stream gardens.
  • Influenced by Zen Buddhism and can be found at Zen temples of meditation
  • Found in the front or rear gardens at the residences.
  • No water presents in gardens. raked gravel or sand that simulates the feeling of water.
  • The rocks/gravel used are chosen for their artistic shapes, and mosses as well as small shrubs.
  • Plants are much less important (and sometimes nonexistent)
  • Rocks and moss are used to represent ponds, islands, boats, seas, rivers, and mountains in an abstract way.
  • Gardens were meant to be viewed from a single, seated perspective.
  • Rocks in karesansui are often associated with Chinese mountains such as Mt. Penglai or Mt. Lu. Karesansui.
  • Stones are usually off-white or grey though the occasional red or black stone were added later.
TSUKIYAMA/HILL GARDENS:
  • They strive to make a smaller garden appear more spacious.
  • Shrubs are utilized to block views of surrounding buildings.
  • The gardens main focus is on nearby mountains in the distance.
  • The garden has the mountains as part of its grounds.
  • Ponds, streams, hills, stones, trees, flowers, bridges, and paths are also used frequently in this style as opposed to a flat garden.
CHANIWA/TEA GARDENS:
  • They are built for tea ceremonies.
  • Tea house is where the ceremonies occur, and the styles of both the hut and garden are based off the simple concepts of the sado.
  • There are stepping stones leading to the tea house, stone lanterns, and stone basins where guests purify themselves before a ceremony.
  • The teahouse is screened by hedges to create a sense of remoteness
Courtyard Gardens – Tsubo Niwa:
  • Courtyard gardens are small gardens.
  • One tsubo is a Japanese measurement equaling 3.3 square meters
  • The origin of the tsubo niwa lies in the 15th century when Japan’s economy was thriving. A lot of merchants had large house with several storage buildings around it. The first courtyard gardens were made in the open spaces between the house and the storage buildings.
  • The elements of a courtyard garden are similar to the elements of a tea garden, however more shade tolerant plants are used. The design principles of traditional Japanese courtyard gardens, are very suited for create contemporary small spaces on roofs or terraces
Strolling gardens – Tsukiyama:
  • These are large landscape gardens. Often existing landscapes are reproduced on a smaller scale, or an imaginary landscape is created.
Strolling gardens – Kaiyu-Shikien:
  • These are pleasure gardens, mostly built during the Edo-period. Most of these gardens are now public parks

Case Studies

  1. Ryoan – Ji temple, Kyoto
  2. Katsura imperial palace garden, Kyoto

Ryoan – Ji temple, Kyoto

  • Ryoan-ji (or The Temple of the Peaceful Dragon) is a Zen temple located in northwest Kyoto, Japan. Belonging to the Myoshin-ji school of the Rinzai branch of Zen Buddhism, the temple is one of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • An object of interest near the rear of the monks quarters is the carved stone receptacle into which water for ritual purification continuously flows. This is the Ryoan-ji tsukubai, which translates literally as “crouch;” and the lower elevation of the basin requires the user to bend a little bit to reach the water, which suggests supplication and reverence.
  • To many, the temple’s name is synonymous with the temple’s famous karesansui (dry landscape) rock garden, thought to have been built in the late 1400s.
  • The garden consists of raked gravel and fifteen moss-covered boulders, which are placed so that, when looking at the garden from any angle only fourteen of the boulders are visible at one time.
  • It is traditionally said that only through attaining enlightenment would one be able to view the fifteenth boulder.
  • The researchers propose that the implicit structure of the garden is designed to appeal to the viewers unconscious visual sensitivity to axial-symmetry skeletons of stimulus shapes. In support of their findings, they found that imposing a random perturbation of the locations of individual rock features destroyed the special characteristics.
KATSURA IMPERIAL PALACE GARDEN, KYOTO:
  • Lake of 1.25 hectares was dug, hills and islands were formed, beaches made, pavilions built and planting undertaken.
  • Has 16 bridges connecting the lake.
  • Lake used for boating parties and the surrounding land as a stroll garden, in effect a tea garden on an enormous scale.
  • The ‘Katsura Tree’ (Cercidiphyllum japonicum) was associated with the God of the Moon and the garden has a platform to view its rising.
  • There are 23 stone lanterns to light the stroll path after dark.
  • Stone basins were used for hand-washing before a tea ceremony.
  • Garden designed not only for meditation (Zen) but also for ceremonious courtly pleasures.
Reference:
  • Japanese Gardens by Gunter Nitschke
  • Slawson, David A. Secret Teachings in the Art of Japanese Gardens
  • Yagi, Koji A Japanese Touch for Your Home
  • Wikipedia.com
  • Flickr.com

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Anish Kapoor the sculptor

While I was researching on the MAXXI museum by Zaha Hadid, I came to know that MAXXI’s collections included the works of a famous sculptor named Anish Kapoor. I quickly googled him and found out that I was ignorant about a famous international figure from my very own nation closely related to my field of interest. So I read about him and came to know that familiar works like the Cloud gates in Chicago was actually done by him. So here is self sorted collection of his works. Do go through the info of his works below. (Courtesy Wiki)

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General Info:

Anish Kapoor CBE RA (born 12 March 1954) is an Indian sculptor. Born in Bombay (Mumbai), Kapoor has lived and worked in London since the early 1970s where he moved to study art, first at the Hornsey College of Art and later at the Chelsea School of Art and Design.

He gained international acclaim with solo exhibits at venues such as the Tate Gallery and Hayward Gallery in London, Kunsthalle Basel, Haus der Kunst Munich, Deutsche Guggenheim in Berlin, Reina Sofia in Madrid, MAK Vienna, and the ICA Boston. He represented Britain in the XLIV Venice Biennale in 1990, when he was awarded the Premio Duemila Prize. In 1991 he received the Turner Prize. Notable public sculptures include Cloud Gate, Millennium Park, Chicago, and Sky Mirror at the Rockefeller Center, New York.

Anish Kapoor is a Royal Academician and was made a Commander of the British Empire in 2003. He is also a Distinguished supporter of the British Humanist Association.

Works:
Kapoor’s pieces are frequently simple, curved forms, usually monochromatic and brightly coloured. Most often, the intention is to engage the viewer, producing awe through their size and simple beauty, evoking mystery through the works’ dark cavities, tactility through their inviting surfaces, and fascination through their reflective facades. His early pieces rely on powder pigment to cover the works and the floor around them. Such use of pigment characterised his first high profile exhibit as part of the New Sculpture exhibition at the Hayward Gallery London in 1978. This practice was inspired by the mounds of brightly coloured pigment in the markets and temples of India. His later works are made of solid, quarried stone, many of which have carved apertures and cavities, often alluding to, and playing with, dualities (earth-sky, matter-spirit, lightness-darkness, visible-invisible, conscious-unconscious, male-female and body-mind). His most recent works are mirror-like, reflecting or distorting the viewer and surroundings. The use of red wax is also part of his current repertoire, evocative of flesh, blood and transfiguration.

Kapoor has produced a number of large works, including Taratantara (1999), a 35 metre-tall piece installed in the Baltic Flour Mills in Gateshead, England before renovation began there and Marsyas (2002), a large work of steel and flesh-coloured PVC that reached end to end of the 3,400 square foot Turbine Hall of Tate Modern. A stone arch by Kapoor is permanently placed at the shore of a lake in Lødingen in northern Norway. In 2000, one of Kapoor’s works, Parabolic Waters, consisting of rapidly rotating coloured water, was shown outside the Millennium Dome in London. In 2001, Sky Mirror, a large mirror piece that reflects the sky and surroundings, was commissioned for a site outside the Nottingham Playhouse. In 2004, Cloud Gate, a 110-ton stainless steel sculpture, was unveiled at Millennium Park in Chicago. In the autumn of 2006, a second Sky Mirror, was installed in Rockefeller Center, New York. Soon to be completed are a memorial to the British victims of 9/11 in New York,and the design and construction of two subway stations in Naples. Kapoor has also been commissioned to produce five pieces of public art by Tees Valley Regeneration (TVR) collectively known as the “Tees Valley Giants”.

In 2007, he showed Svayambh (which can be roughly translated as ‘self-generated’), a 1.5 metre carved block of red wax that moved on rails through the Nantes Musée des Beaux-Arts as part of the Biennale estuaire; this piece was shown again in a major show at the Haus Der Kunst in Munich and in 2009 at the Royal Academy in London. Kapoor’s recent work increasingly blurs the boundaries between architecture and art.

In 2008, the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston exhibited Kapoor’s first U.S. mid-career survey.  In the same year, Kapoor created the sculpture “Memory” in Berlin and New York for the Guggenheim Foundation.

In 2009 Anish Kapoor became the first Guest Artistic Director of Brighton Festival. As well as informing the content of the festival as a whole, Kapoor installed 4 significant sculptures for the duration of the festival; Sky Mirror at Brighton Pavilion gardens, C-Curve at The Chattri, Blood Relations (a collaboration with author Salman Rushdie) and 1000 Names, both at Fabrica. He also created 2 new works: a large site-specific work entitled ‘The Dismemberment of Jeanne d’Arc’ and a performance based installation entitled ‘Imagined Monochrome’. The public response was so overwhelming that police had to re-divert traffic around C Curve at the Chattri and exercise crowd control.

Kapoor also designed the ArcelorMittal Orbit, a 115 metre spiral sculpture of the Olympic rings. Designed by Kapoor to commemorate the 2012 Olympic Games in London, the piece will be the largest example of public art in the UK when completed.

When asked if engagement with people and places is the key to successful public art, Kapoor said,
I’m thinking about the mythical wonders of the world, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the Tower of Babel. It’s as if the collective will comes up with something that has resonance on an individual level and so becomes mythic. I can claim to take that as a model for a way of thinking. Art can do it, and I’m going to have a damn good go. I want to occupy the territory, but the territory is an idea and a way of thinking as much as a context that generates objects.

His work is collected worldwide, notably by the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Tate Modern in London, Fondazione Prada in Milan, the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the De Pont Foundation in Tilburg, Netherlands, and the 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art in Kanazawa, Japan.

Kapoor’s gallery representations include the Lisson Gallery, London and the Gladstone Gallery, New York.

Architectural projects:
Throughout his career, Kapoor has worked extensively with architects and engineers. Kapoor insists that this body of work is neither pure sculpture nor pure architecture. Notable architectural projects include the recently announced Tees Valley “Giants”, the worlds five largest sculptures in collaboration with Cecil Balmond of ARUP AGU, two subway stations in Naples in collaboration with Future Systems, an unrealised project for the Millennium Dome, London, (1995) in collaboration with Philip Gumuchdjian, a proposal for the Princess Diana Memorial Fountain and “Building for a Void”, created for Expo ’92, Seville, in collaboration with David Connor. “Taratantara” (1999-2000) was installed at the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead and later at Piazza Plebiscito, Naples.

Of his vision for the Cumana station in Monte Sant’Angelo, Naples, currently under construction (as of June 2008), Kapoor has said:It’s very vulva-like. The tradition of the Paris or Moscow metro is of palaces of light, underground. I wanted to do exactly the opposite – to acknowledge that we are going underground. So it’s dark, and what I’ve done is bring the tunnel up and roll it over as a form like a sock.

Read more about the works of Anish Kapoor on Artsy: https://www.artsy.net/artist/anish-kapoor