Raj Rewal – CIDCO Lowcost Housing, Navi Mumbai

This building project by the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) by Maharashtra state represents a complex, specifically Indian problem: creating accommodation for people on subsistence incomes. Fundamentally, these are homes that can never be owned by their occupants, because in most cases the people who live there will never succeed in breaking through the income barriers. People usually get stuck within a social stratum that is clearly defined and demarcated without any hope or chance of improvement because of inadequate schooling and professional training. Other factors, too, play a part in the Hindu social system, especially the caste system, a millennia-old structure into which one is born. Over the centuries, a system that ordered and stabilised society into professional classes degenerated into an unworthy class system that despises human beings. Despite the Indian government’s best efforts to break away from it, sometimes using force, and to guarantee better chances of success for those involved, this scourge still remains firmly anchored in people’s consciousness.

Raj Rewal’s practice was commissioned to plan 1000 accommodation units for residents on the edge of a large planning area in New Mumbai, a new area that was being developed at the time east of Mumbai old town. As is the case with all urban development projects, despite a very low budget it was important not just to provide the bare essentials in terms of space, but above all to develop a home environment that was simple but of high quality. The difficult balancing act between finance and ambience could succeed only if inexpensive but lastingly effective building materials were used, and if the planning process was not too costly and led a simple implementation procedure. The Rewal practice designed the project as a high density structure. On the one hand it was because the area available was strictly limited, but also in order to achieve quality for the outdoor space that was effective in urban terms, yet reminiscent of a naturally developed village. These accommodations cells, or “molecules” (Rewal), now consist of one to three room units 18, 25, 40 and 70 m2 large. They have essential sanitary facilities and water tanks on the roof for a constant water supply, which is still by no means to be taken for granted in essentially rural India.

One important problem had to be solved: what reasonably priced and durable materials could make a lasting effect within a very tight financial framework. The final choice was a combination of concrete cavity blocks, exposed plasterwork, hand-made terracotta tiles and locally available rough granite stones for the base. This combination can endure the hard monsoon climate and will develop an acceptable patina. Electricity was also guaranteed for the entire complex, not just in the dwellings themselves, but in the public areas as well. Roads were moved to the periphery to allow for safe but reasonably priced footpath connections within the development. There is access on all sides from the outside, and it is easy for people to filter through the building groups. With the concept of a very dense residential quarter, Rewal accomodated the enormously high level of social interaction in everyday Indian life. People do not just live in their own homes, but are in intensive contact with neighbours, friends and fellow occupants almost throughout the day and night.

Thus opening the homes up to the outdoor space is an important design consideration. Increased urban density is now not usually born of necessity, but an important concept for life in general. When developing urban space the quality of indoor and outdoor space have to go hand in hand, as life takes place to a large extent in the street. So when planning the chain of “molecules”, great emphasis was laid on the connections implied by communally used spaces. In India, a “village” consists of an accumulation of squares, courtyards, loggias, terraces and balconies where people communicate and make the exchanges that are so essential to life. Rewal considers these factors on a large scale and builds these zones into his architecture. He develops a type of building kit system with cubic basic elements. These admit a wide range of highly flexible variation as a design principle and can thus be used almost universally: courtyards turn individual blocks into chains, modules are set very close together, blocks with courtyards are grouped as quarters. This shows a theme being kept consistently and implemented with great virtuosity. Efficiency is not the only key factor, it is important to create a living environment on the basis of a wealth of space. A structure emerges that is completely homogeneous not just as a physical entity, but also in terms of its materials, a design that is all of a piece, and yet at the same time a highly sophisticated residential unit with complex spatial diversity. The fact that the buildings all have different numbers of storeys contributes to this, being staggered from one to four levels, and so does the slope on the site. A sloping site dynamises and extends the space and the physical quality of the buildings and enhances the image of a living organism that seems as though it could be extended at any time. The totality of the planning is expressed in homogeneity, emphasising the holistic design. There is no attempt to duplicate the individual dwellings artificially, no false sense of growth, which gives the architectural approach its complete credibility. Rewal is very consistently demonstrating a concept that has nothing nostalgic about it in terms of overall appearance: reduction was essential, and from this necessity is born an abstract and thus unambiguously modern form, entirely committed to its time.

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PRACTICAL APPROACH OF VASTU SHASTRA IN ARCHITECTURE

AUSPICIOUS  DAYS TO START CONSTRUCTION

  •  SUNDAY:  FEAR OF FIRE
  • MONDAY:  PAECE, PROSPERITY & HAPPINESS
  • TUESDAY:  NEGATIVE  EFFECTS
  • WEDNESDAY:  GOOD FOR WEALTH, FAME & FAMILY
  • THURSDAY:  LONGLIFE, NAME & FAME
  • FRIDAY:  MENTAL PEACE & HAPPINESS, FUNCTIONS
  • SATURDAY:  LOSS OF WEALTH, PEACE & LIFE.

AUSPICIOUS  MONTHS TO START CONSTRUCTION

  • MARCH-APRIL(CHAITRA):  FEAR OF FIRE
  • APRIL-MAY (VAISHAKH):  AUSPICIOUS
  • MAY-JUNE ( JAISHSTHA ):  FEAR OF DEATH
  • JUNE-JULY ( ASHADHA ):  LOSS OF DOMESTIC ANIMAL
  • JULY-AUGUST ( SHRAWANA ):  GOOD FOR FAMILY
  • AUGUST-SEPTEMBER ( BHADRA ):  ILLNESS & TROUBLES
  • OCT-NOVEMBER ( KARTIKA ):  PROSPERITY
  • NOV- DEC ( MARGASHEESHA ):  TROUBLES, FEAR
  • DEC-JAN ( PUASHA ):  FEAR OF FIRE & PROBLEMS

IMPORTANCE  OF  COLOURS  IN  VASTU

  • DARK  RED:    LOVE & AFFECTION
  • MEDIUM  RED:  HEALTH & FULL OF LIFE
  • BRIGHT RED:  DESIRE
  • DARK PINK:  FESTIVITY, MORE FEMANINE
  • MEDIUM  PINK:  TENDERNESS & SOFTNESS
  • DARK  ORANGE:  AMBITIOUS
  • MEDIUM  ORANGE:  FIGHTING SPIRIT & ENTHUSIASM
  • LIGHT  ORANGE:  WITH SPEED
  • DARK  BROWN:  APPROPRIATE
  • MEDIUM  YELLOW:  GOOD
  • LIGHT  YELLOW:  INTELLIGENCE
  • DARK  YELLOW:  ENERGETIC
  • LIGHT  GOLDEN:  HUMANITY
  • MEDIUM  GOLDEN:  PROSPERITY
  • DARK  GOLDEN:  LUXURY
  • MEDIUM  GREEN:  OPENNESS & PRACTICAL
  • DARK  GREEN:  INNOCENCE
  • MEDIUM  BLUE:  IDEAL
  • DARK  BLUE:  HONESTY  &  DEVOTION
  • LIGHT  BLUE:  PEACE LOVING
  • LIGHT  MEDIUM  BLUE:  KINDNESS
  • LIGHT  BRINGEL:  TENDERNESS
  • DARK  BRINGEL:  LUXURY

DESIGNING PROCEDURE AS PER VASTU

  • MARK NORTH DIRECTION ON THE SITE PLAN
  • PUT BRAHMA ESTHAN ON THE SITE PLAN.
  • ARRANGE VARIOUS ZONES OF VASTU OVER THE SITE PLAN.
  • PUT MAIN GATE IN THE  PLOT FROM THE ZONE OF HIGH POSITIVE ENERGY.
  • ALLOW THE SET BACKS TO BE LEFT AS PER DEV. AUTHORITY NORMS
  • ENSURE THE RECTANGULARITY OF THE PLOT, LIMITISE THE DESIGNING ONLY IN RECTANGULAR PORTION, REST MAY BE LEFT FOR REMEDIES.
  • ARRANGE THE SPACES AS PER VASTU TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLIENT.
  • ENSURE THAT MAIN ENTRY DOOR ( DEHRI ) FACES NORTH OR EAST  DIRECTION.
  • NORTH AND EAST OF THE PLOT SHOULD BE LEFT OPEN IF POSSIBLE FOR POSITIVE ENERGIES TO FLOW IN.
  • SOUTH AND WEST MAY BE PLANNED HEAVY TO CHECK THE FLOW OF NEGATIVE ENERGIES IN THE PLOT.
  • PUJA IN N-E ZONE OF THE PLOT, ONE SHOULD FACE EAST WHILE PERFORMING PUJA.
  • WATER BORING IN NORTH TO EAST (AVOIDING EXACTLY N-E) ZONE.

 VASTU : RESIDENTIAL COLONIES

 HOW TO DESIGN A RESIDENTIAL COLONY :

  • LOCATE  NORTH  DIRECTION ON THE SITE PLAN
  • LOCATE THE CENTRE-POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAN
  • LOCATE ENTRY GATE OF THE COLONY IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE.
  • THE LAYOUT PLAN SHOULD BE PREPARED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAN SHOULD NOT FALL IN ANY PLOT, IT SHOULD BE IN OPEN SPACE SUCH AS PARK, ROAD AND PREFERABLY THE INTERSECTION OF ROADS, WHICH CAN BE  SUITABLY LANDSCAPED.
  • THE LAYOUT PLAN OF THE COLONY SHOULD BE PREPARED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE HOUSES MAY FACE EAST, NORTH OR WEST.
  • SOUTH FACING PLOTS SHOULD BE AVOIDED DURING LAYOUT-PLANNING.
  • NORTH-EAST ZONE MAY BE PLANNED AS OPEN SPACE FOR PARK, PLAYGROUND, TOT-LOT ETC.
  • THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  • STORAGE OF WATER IN OVER HEAD TANKS SHOULD BE PLACED IN NORTH, NORTH-WEST ZONE.
  • THE ELECTRICAL METER, TRANSFORMER, GENERATOR ETC. SHOULD BE PLANNED IN SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE ENTIRE LAYOUT.
  • THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.
  • NORTH-WEST ZONE IS RECOMMENDED FOR ANY COMMUNITY SEPTIC TANK OR SOAK WELL, IN CASE THE SEWER SYSTEM IS NOT AVAILABLE.

  VASTU  IN  COMMERCIAL  BUILDINGS:

HOW TO PROCEED FOR DESIGNING OF COMMERCIAL  BUILDINGS AS PER VASTU

  • MARK CENTRE POINT OF THE PLOT, LAY NORTH DIRECTION OVER THE SITE PLAN AND PUT ALL THE VASTU DIRECTIONS OVER THE PLAN TO DIVIDE THE LAND INTO VARIOUS VASTU ZONES.
  • LOCATE ENTRY GATE OF THE COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE, PREFER MAINGATE FROM NORTH, NORTH – EAST OR EAST DIRECTION.
  • PLACE LOT OF OPENNESS IN EAST AND NORTH ZONE SO THAT MORNING SUN LIGHT IS AVAILABLE IN ABUNDANCE IN THE COMMERCIAL BLDG.
  • THE BUILDING SHOULD BE HIGH IN SOUTH AND WEST ZONE.
  • HEAVY STORAGES, GODOWNS SHOULD BE PLANNED  IN S-W ZONE.
  • PARKING FOR VEHICLES IN NORTH – WEST ZONE, IT CAN BE PLANNED  IN THE BASEMENTS ALSO.
  • GENERATOR ROOM , ELECTRICAL PANEL ROOM SHOULD BE IN SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE BUILDING.
  • THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  • THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.
  • MEZZANINE FLOORS SHOULD BE PROVIDED IN SOUTH OR WEST ZONES.
  • TOILET BLOCK SHOULD BE TOWARDS WEST, NORTH WEST ZONE POSSIBLY.
  • ENSURE THAT THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAAN OF THE PLOT SHOULD BE KEPT OPEN AND NO BEAMS, COLUMN OR WALL SHOULD CROSS OVER THE SAME.
  • THE COMMERCIAL PLOTS ARE GOOD WHOSE FRONT IS WIDER THAN THE BACK.

VASTU : INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS:

  1. NORTH OR EAST FACING PLOTS SELECTED FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS ARE BEST
  2. LOCATE ENTRY GATE OF THE COLONY IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE, PREFER MAINGATE FROM NORTH, NORTH-EAST OR EAST DIRECTION.
  3. GUARDS IN N-W OR NORTH DIRECTION
  4. PLACE LOT OF OPENNESS IN EAST AND NORTH ZONE SO THAT MORNING SUN LIGHT IS AVAILABLE IN ABUNDANCE IN THE INDUSTRIAL PREMISES.
  5. HIGH RISE TREES MAY BE PLANTED IN SOUTH AND WEST ZONE.
  6. HEAVY STORAGES, GODOWNS SHOULD BE PLANNED TO PUT UP IN S-W ZONE
  7. PARKING FOR VEHICLES IN NORTH- WEST ZONE
  8. ADMINITRATIVE BLOCK  IN THE INDUSTRIAL SET UP SHOULD BE ERECTED IN NORTH OR EAST ZONE OF THE PLOT, LOWER IN HEIGHT OF INDUSTRIAL PLANT.
  9. GENERATOR ROOM , ELECTRICAL ROOM SHOULD BE IN SOUTH-WEST ZONE OF THE INDUSTRY.
  10. STAFF QUARTERS IN S-E OR N-W ZONE OF THE INDUSTRIAL PLOT.
  11. THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  12. THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.

INDUSTRIAL  PREMISES :  Ist CASE STUDY

IT IS A BIG INDUSTRIAL PLANT EXISTING AT KASHIPUR, UTTRANCHAL WHICH  MANUFACTURE STEEL, IT HAS GOT

  • ENTRY FROM S-E ZONE
  • N-E EXTENDED
  • FURNACE IN S-E, S ZONE
  • SOUTH, S-W AND WEST ARE HEAVY
  • NORTH, N-E AND EAST ARE COMPARATIVELY VERY LIGHT
  • LABOUR QUARTERS IN WEST ZONE.
  • CENTRE POINT IS FREE AND NOT LOADED.
  • WATER BORING IN EAST ZONE
  • FINISHED GODOWN TOWARDS NORTH ZONE

INDUSTRIAL  PREMISES : 2nd CASE  STUDY

LAYOUT PLAN OF AN  INDUSTRY :

  • THE MAIN ENTRY OF THE INDUSTRY IS EXISTING FROM THE ZONE OF   WEST AND SOUTH-WEST.
  • VAST AREA HAS BEEN LEFT AS OPEN IN S-W, WEST, AND N-W ZONE   AS SHOWN IN THE SITE PLAN.
  • THE ENTRY TO THE INDUSTRIAL UNIT IS ALSO FROM SOUTH   DIRECTION.
  • TEMPLE, DIRECTOR RESIDENCES, SCHOOL ETC. HAS BEEN   PROVIDED IN THE N-E ZONE.
  • THERE IS EXISTING ADMINISTRATIVE BLOCK  IN THE EAST DIRECTION
  • PART OF FACTORY, FINISHED GODOWN AND  LABOUR QUARTERS    ARE EXISTING IN S-E ZONE.
  • MAIN FACTORY AREA IS BETWEEN S-E AND SOUTH ZONE
  • WATER BORING IS IN  NORTH- AEST DIRECTION OF THE FACTORY

VASTU :HOTELS & RESTAURANTS:

HOW TO PROCEED FOR DESIGNING AS PER VASTU

  1. MARK CENTRE POINT OF THE PLOT, LAY NORTH DIRECTION OVER THE SITE PLAN AND PUT ALL THE VASTU DIRECTIONS OVER THE PLAN TO DIVIDE THE LAND INTO VARIOUS VASTU ZONES.
  2. LOCATE ENTRY GATE IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE, PREFER MAINGATE FROM NORTH, NORTH – EAST OR EAST DIRECTION.
  3. PLACE LOT OF OPENNESS IN EAST AND NORTH ZONE WITH PROPER LANDSCAPING.
  4. THE BUILDING SHOULD BE HIGH IN SOUTH AND WEST ZONE.
  5. PARKING FOR VEHICLES IN NORTH – WEST ZONE, IT CAN BE PLANNED  IN THE BASEMENTS ALSO.
  6. GENERATOR ROOM , ELECTRICAL PANEL ROOM SHOULD BE IN SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE PLOT.
  7. THE KITCHEN SHOULD BE ESSENTIALLY TOWARDS THE SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE PLOT. ESPECIALLY THE MAJOR COOKING SHOULD BE PERFORMED  EAST FACING. THE WASH AREA NEAR THE KIT. SHOULD BE TOWARDS NORTH OR EAST ZONE OF KITCHEN.
  8. THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  9. THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.
  10. TOILET BLOCK SHOULD BE TOWARDS WEST, NORTH WEST ZONE POSSIBLY.
  11. ENSURE THAT ALL WCs SHOULD FACE SOUTH, S-W OR WEST DIRECTIONS ONLY WHILE IN USE. IN ANY CASE THEY SHOULD NOT FACE EAST OR NORTH DIRECTIONS.
  12. ENSURE THAT THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA    ESTHAAN OF THE PLOT SHOULD BE KEPT OPEN AND NO    BEAMS, COLUMN OR WALL SHOULD CROSS OVER THE SAME.
  13. THE OWNER OF THE HOTEL, G. MANAGERS AND ACCOUNT   PERSONNEL SHOULD FACE NORTH DIRECTIONS WHILE   SITTING IN THEIR OFFICES.
  14. THE RECEPTION OF THE HOTEL SHOULD NOT FACE SOUTH   DIRECTION, IT CAN BE TOWARDS EAST, NORTH OR WEST   DIRECTION.
  15. PREFER THAT ALL THE BEDS IN THE ROOMS/SUITES MAY BE   PLACED IN EAST HEADED OR SOUTH HEADED WAY TO THE   EXENT POSSIBLE.
  16. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT ANGULARITY OF THE SPCES SHOULD      BE AVOIDED. PREFER THAT RECTANGULAR SPACES ARE        CREATED WHILE ANY DEVELOPMENT.
  17. THE INTERIORS, COLOUR SCHEME AND PLANTATIONS   SHOULD BE PROVIDED TO MAKE THE SPACE MORE LIVELY,   INCREASING POSITIVITY IN THE HOTELS.

VASTU :GROUP HOUSING  SCHEME

VASTU  IN  MULTY STOREYED RESIDENTIAL  BUILDINGS

  • LOCATE  NORTH  DIRECTION ON THE SITE PLAN
  • LOCATE THE CENTRE-POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAN
  • LOCATE ENTRY GATE OF THE COLONY IN THE MOST POSITIVE ENERGY ZONE PRACTICALLY AVAILABLE.
  • THE LAYOUT PLAN SHOULD BE PREPARED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAN SHOULD NOT FALL IN ANY PLOT, IT SHOULD BE IN OPEN SPACE SUCH AS PARK, ROAD AND PREFERRABLY   THE INTERSECTION OF ROADS, WHICH CAN BE  SUITABLY LANDSCAPED.
  • THE LAYOUT PLAN OF THE MULTI STOREYED BUILDING SHOULD BE PREPARED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE HOUSES MAY FACE EAST, NORTH OR WEST.
  • SOUTH FACING PLOTS SHOULD BE AVOIDED DURING PLANNING.
  • NORTH-EAST ZONE MAY BE PLANNED AS OPEN SPACE FOR PARK, PLAYGROUND,TOT-LOT ETC.
  • THE WATER BORING SHOULD BE DONE IN WATER ZONE, BETWEEN NORTH AND EAST.
  • THE ELECTRICAL METER, TRANSFORMER, GENERATOR ETC. SHOULD BE   PLANNED IN SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF THE ENTIRE LAYOUT.
  • THE SLOPE OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM SHOULD BE PLANNED FROM WEST TO   EAST AND SOUTH TO NORTH TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE.
  • NORTH-WEST ZONE IS RECOMMENED FOR ANY COMMUNITY SEPTIC TANK OR SOAK WELL, IN CASE THE SEWER SYSTEM IS NOT AVAILABLE.

 VASTU OF JAIPUR

  • THE CITY WAS BUILD IN 1727 ACCORDING TO THE   SHILPSHASTRA,THE ANCIENT HINDU TRETISE ON   ARCHITECTURE,BY MAHARAJA SAWAI JAI SINGH II AFTER   WHOM IT IS NAMED.
  • JAIPUR NESTLES AMONGST THE HILLS OF THE ARAVALLI   RANGES,WHICH RUN DIAGONALLY ACROSS RAJASTHAN IN   A NORTH-EAST TO SOUTH-WEST DIRECTION,JUST WEST   OF JAIPUR. N-W IS “NAHARGARH FORT”.
  • JAI SINGH’S JAIPUR IS DIVIDED INTO SEVEN   RECTANGULAR SECTIONS BY WIDE,WELL LAID  MAIN   ROADS INTERSECTED BY STREETS.
  • THE OLD CITY IS ENCIRCLED BY A FORTIFIED WALL   WITH SEVEN GATES.OUTSIDE THESE WALLS IS MODERN   JAIPUR.
  • THE NORTH EAST OF THE CITY HAS VAST OPEN AREA.
  • A  HUGE   LAKE CALLED JAL-MAHAL WAS PROVIDED     TOWARDS THE NORTH-EASTERN ZONE OF THE CITY,   ALONGWITH A TEMPLE KANAK VRINDAVAN.
  • THE CENTRE POINT CALLED BRAHMA ESTHAAN OF THE   CITY FALLS IN THE VAST OPEN AREA  NEAR TO WHICH   IS THE TEMPLE “GOVIND JI”.
  • THE MAIN ENTRY IS IN THE NORTH EAST CALLED    “JORAWARSINGH   GATE”.
  • THE ENTRY FROM THE EAST DIRECTION DENOMINATE   THE RISING SUN HENCE NAMED AS “SURAJ POLE GATE”.
  • THE  ENTRY FROM THE WEST DIRECTION NOTIFIES RISING   MOON, SO NAMED AS  “CHANDPOL   GATE.”
  • THE SOUTH WEST HAS THE RIGHTLY PLACED   “TOPKHANADESH”,WHERE MANUFACTURING OF   WAEPONS WAS DONE.
  • SOUTH EAST HAD THE FORCES ,THE SOILDERS   KNNOWN AS “TOPKHANA HAZURI”.
  • THE PINK COLOUR PAINTED ALL OVER THE CITY   RENDERS THE ENVIRONMENT OF FESTIVITY,   TENDERNESS, PEACE AND PROSPERITY IN THE CITY.

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Kisho Kurokawa – Nagakin Capsule tower

About the architect:

  • Born in Kanie, Aichi, Kurokawa studied architecture at Kyoto University, graduating with a bachelor’s degree in 1957.
  • Kurokawa received a master’s degree in 1959 from University of Tokyo.
  • Kurokawa then went on to study for a doctorate of philosophy, but subsequently dropped out in 1964.
  • Cofounded the metabolist movement  in 1960, whose members were known as Metabolists
  • was a radical Japanese avant -garde  (advance guard)movement pursuing the merging and recycling of architecture styles within an Asian context
  • Vision- cities of the future were characterized by large scale, flexible, and expandable structures that evoked the processes of organic growth

Philosophy of metabolism:

  1. Impermanence
  2. Materiality
  3. Details
  4. Receptivity

Nagakin Capsule tower:

  • Based on philosophy of metabolism.
  • first capsule architecture design.
  • originally designed as a Capsule Hotel to provide economical housing for businessmen working late in central Tokyo during the week.
  • 14-story high Tower has 140 capsules stacked at angles around a central core.

PLUG –IN-POD:

  • Install the capsule units into the concrete core
  • Units  detachable and replaceable
  • 1 capsule – 4×2.5m
  • Modified shipping  container –interior preassembled in factory

Metabolism in Nagakin Capsule Tower:

  • IMPERMANENCE:removable ,interchangeable  capsules
  • DETAILS – detailed connections
  • MATERIALITY– pipe work , ductwork were not hidden
  • RECEPTIVITY– building ready for change

PHILOSOPHY OF SYMBIOSIS:

  • INTERDEPENDENCE
  • New way of interpreting today’s culture-
  • Philosophy of   ‘both – and’ not ‘either-or’

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Charles Correa – Church At Parumala and Belapur Housing

CHURCH AT PARUMALA

  • The church can accommodate 2000 people inside the walls and 3000 outside.
  • The form of the church has been derived from  tri-partite structure of  Coptic  and Syrian traditions .
  • However the rituals themselves , with the faithful sitting and kneeling on the floor are completely indigenous.

BELAPUR HOUSING

  • Project demonstrates how high density housing (500 people per hectare) can be achieved in a low-rise typology, while including open to sky spaces and services, like schools, that the community requires
  • Overriding principle – to give each unit its own site to allow for expansion (Incrementality)
  • Consequently, families do not share walls with their neighbors , allowing each to expand his own house (Participation)
  • Houses constructed simply and can be built by traditional masons and craftsmen – generating employment for local workers (Income generation)
  • several plans exist that cover the social spectrum, from squatters to upper income families (Pluralism)
  • Yet, the footprint of each plan varies little in size (from 45 sqm to 70 sqm), maintaining equity (fairness) in the community
  • Scheme caters wide range from the lowest budgets of Rs 20000, Middle income groups Rs 30000-50000 and Upper income Rs 180000.
  • Though ratio of costs is 1:5 the variation of plot is much smaller , from 45 to 75 square metres.
  • Seven units are grouped of 8×8 meters
  • 3 cluster combine to form a larger module of 21 houses surrounding space of 12×12 metres
  • 3 such modules interlock to define the next scale of community space approximately 20×20 metres
  • The houses are structurally simple , can be built and altered by local mistries
  • Scheme caters wide range from the
  • lowest budgets of Rs 20000, Middle income groups Rs 30000-50000, Upper income Rs 180000
  • Though ratio of costs is 1:5 the variation of plot is much smaller , from 45 to 75 square metres.
  • Seven units are grouped of 8×8 meters
  • 3 cluster combine to form a larger module of 21 houses surrounding space of 12×12 metres
  • 3 such modules interlock to define the next scale of community space approximately 20×20 metres
  • The houses are structurally simple , can be built and altered by local mistries

Charles Correa:

Education

  • 1946-1948 inter-science. St. Xavier’s college, university of Bombay
  • 1949-1955 B.Arch., University of Michigan.
  • 1953-1955 M.Arch., Massachusetts institute of technology.

Professional Experience

  • 1955-1958 partner with G.M. BHUTA associates
  • 1958- to date in private practice.
  • 1964-1965 prepared master plan proposing twin city across the harbor from Bombay.
  • 1969-1971 invited by the govt. of Peru
  • 1971-1975 chief architect to CIDCO
  • 1975-1976 consultant to UN secretory-general for HABITAT
  • 1975-1983 Chairman Housing Urban Renewal & Ecology Board
  • 1985 chairman dharavavi palnning commision

About him:

  • Born into a middle-class Catholic family in Bombay
  • Became fascinated with the principles of design as a child
  • At Michigan two professors who influenced him the most – Walter Salders and Buckminister Fuller.
  • Kevin lynch , then in the process of developing his themes for image of the city triggered Correa’s interest in urban issues
  • ‘India of those days was a different place, it was a brand-new country, there was so much hope; India stimulated me.’
  • —Architect, planner, activist and theoretician, an international lecturer and traveler.
  • —Correa’s work in India shows a careful development, understanding and adaptation of Modernism to a non-western culture. Correa’s early works attempt to explore a local vernacular within a modern environment. Correa’s land-use planning and community projects continually try to go beyond typical solutions to third world problems.
  • —India’s first man of architecture has a very simple philosophy: “Unless you believe in what you do, it becomes … boring,”

AWARDS:

  • 1961 Prize for low-income housing early
  • 1972 Correa was awarded the PadmaShri by the President of India
  • 1980 Correa was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Michigan
  • 1984 He was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal          Institute of British Architects
  • 1985 Prize for the Improvement in the Quality of Human
  • Settlements from the International Union of Architects.
  • 1986 Chicago Architecture Award.
  • 1987 the Gold Medal of the Indian Institute of Architects
  • 1990 the Gold Medal of the UIA (International Union of Architects)
  • 1994 the Premium Imperial from Japan society of art.
  • 1999 Aga khan award for vidhan sabha, bhopal

Diversity

  • In Bombay – Salvacao Church at Dadar ; Kanchanjunga Apartments
  • In Goa for the Cidade de Goa Hotel and the Kala Academy,
  • In Ahmedabad – Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya ; Ramkrishna House
  • Delhi – The LIC Centre; British Council Building
  • Kerala – Kovalam Beach Resort Hotel
  • Andamans – Bay Island Hotel in Port Blair

Architectural utility and grandeur spread over the subcontinent

Principles

  • Few cardinal principles in his vast body of work;
  • incrementality
  • pluralism
  • participation
  • income generation
  • equity
  • open-to-sky space
  • disaggregation.

Belapur housing being the one project where he has literally used these principals

Correa and Corbusier

Like most architects of his generation he has been influenced by Le Corbusier , but by his response to the Mediterranean sun with his grand sculptural decisions he believes that Corbusier’s  influence in the colder climates has not been beneficial because these heroic gestures had to withdraw into defensible space, into mechanically heated (and cooled) interiors of the building.

On way back to Bombay in 1955 – saw the Jaoul House (le Corbusier)  in Paris under construction

‘I was absolutely knocked out . It was a whole new world way beyond anything being taught in America at that time .then I saw Chandigarh and his buildings in Ahmedabad . They seemed the only way to build.”

Correa and Gandhi

  • Gandhi’s goal for an independent India had been a village model, non-industrial, its architecture simple and traditional
  • In these early works Correa demonstrates uncompromising execution of an idea as a powerful statement of form

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Uttam C Jain – Jodhpur University ,Aga Khan School and NRI Housing.

Architects Profile :

  • Full  Name :  Uttam Chand  jain
  • Born :  1934
  • Business Name  :  Uttam C. Jain Architects & Planners
  • Services   :  Architecture, Urban Planning
  • Design Team :  15 members , mumbai

Qualification :

  • Advanced study scholarship from the National University of Tucuman, Argentina, 1959
  • First Class Honours degree in Architecture – Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 1958

Key projects

  • Capitol Complex, Naya Raipur, India, 2006-Ongoing, Institutional
  • Shri Tirupati Balaji General Hospital, Panthawada, India, 2004-2007, Hospital
  • Aga Khan School, Mundra, India, 2002-2006, Institutional
  • Umaid Heritage, Jodhpur, India, 2003-2005, Master Plan
  • Prerna Sthala, Yavatmal, India, 2002-2003, Memorial
  • Landmark, Bombay, India, 1993-2002, Workspace
  • University of Jodhpur, Jodhpur, India, 1969-1999, Institutional
  • Universal Harmony Hall, Mount Abu, India, 1993-1995, Convention Centre
  • Habibganj Railway Station, Bhopal, India, 1989-1995, Transport
  • Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Bombay, India, 1985-1987, Institutional

Key awards:

  • 2007, A+D & Spectrum Foundation Architecture Awards 2006, New Delhi, India
  • 2005, Golden Architect Award 2004, A+D & Spectrum Paints Ltd., New Delhi, India
  • 2002, Chairman’s Award – Architect of the Year 2001, J.K. Cement Ltd., India
  • 1992, President’s Award – Baburao Mhatre Gold Medal, Indian Institute of Architects, India
  • 1991, JIIA Awards, Indian Institute of Architects, Bombay, India
  • 1969, Commonwealth Institute of Architects, London, UK

Philosophy

  • In the operational realities, if an attempt is made to highlight the ideological postures leading to the directions of value as accepted in all design-decisions resulting into tangible architectural ambient, the efforts are also directed towards creating a preference in the public mind for consumption of good design in their day to day living.
  • The immediate surroundings is  source of construction materials; snow, stone, straw, reed, wood or mud is the indigenous materials for constructing an enclosure.
  • The relationship between human being and the building being established, what develops and grows around becomes a measure for man and his society.
  • There is a place for everything and everything has its place.
  • Spatial configuration in his design is an attempt to invoke a spirit that will establish a symbiotic bond between the present and the past.
  • FORM : Realization of shelter form and its content are in response to a given place, climate, and time.
  • AESTHETICS: It is the aesthetics of openness contrasted with enclosures that highlights the different features from the rest of the façade.

Conclusion :

Uttam C. Jain is one of the great contemporary architect of India . After studying his projects we understand his philosophy that “ The relationship between human being and the building being established, what develops and grows around becomes a measure for man and his society” . His project shows lots of good architectural solutions and their implications in Indian climate and behaviors. The use of arches , vaults , domes , squinched , pillars , cutouts in facades , courtyards , pergolas etc are the major elements of his design. His designs are mere a excellent response the site and surroundings. The Jodhpur university is one of his great works indeed . He has come up with a excellent solutions of the climate and space behavior. The stepped roofs , the sitting patterns , the use of stones , the use of cutouts for ventilation are his major features in it . Use of local materials with a good mixtures of modern technology make his building a completely excellent response . In the operational realities, if an attempt is made to highlight the ideological postures leading to the directions of value as accepted in all design-decisions resulting into tangible architectural ambient, the efforts are also directed towards creating a preference in the public mind for consumption of good design in their day to day living. A doctor buries his mistake and an architect builds his mistake. There are individuals who fail to understand what good architecture is all about. But U.C.Jain feels that, architecture begins after you put up four walls and a roof and that is what he call the non-manifest part. Architecture is like music. You can feel it but not see it. You have to comprehend and appreciate architecture. Architecture provides us with our basic biological needs but actually its realms go much further than that. His sense of creativity stems from what he add from his mind. There are the 3 ‘P’s of architecture, namely, the personality of the architect, the product and the place. These have to be in synergy.

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