Jawahar Kala Kendra – Charles Correa

Key  concepts:

  • Museum was inspired from city planning of  Jaipur.
  • Also symolises the NINE Planets as “Nav Graha”
  • Museum was inspired from city planning of  Jaipur.
  • Indian+ Modernism was the key : By making the southeast block to shift for Entrance.

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GWATHMEY SEIGEL- AMERICAN MUSEUM OF THE MOVING IMAGES

LIFE:

  • Born in Charlotte, North Carolina in 1938
  • Studied at the University of Pennsylvania School of Architecture under Louis I. Kahn, Robert Venturi, and Thomas Vreeland
  • Graduated from Yale with a Masters in architecture in 1962 where he studied under Paul Rudolph and James Stirling
  • Begun a partnership with Robert Seigel in 1971

ARCHITECTURAL STYLE:

  • Grafts American vernacular with the International Style
  • Combines nineteenth century brickwork, American wood construction with the Modernist’s passion for industrial buildings to create sleek, unarticulated surfaces
  • Exaggerated super scale and sense of infinite space
  • Spatial variety , emphasizing verticality
  • Functionally appropriate and recognizing activity patterns

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, Whig Hall, Princeton (1975)

  • Won the 1973 Design Award for Progressive Architecture

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF THE MOVING IMAGE, New York(1988)

  • American Museum of the Moving Image is both an archive-repository and a learning center for movie and video history where exhibits are designed to encourage hands-on exploration
  • “The final outcome is a Museum which has received worldwide recognition for its aesthetic distinction and is, at the same time, a place where I and my colleagues are able to function professionally in an environment which is not only pleasing but appropriate to the activities which we must perform.” – Rochelle Slovin, Director

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Bernard Tschumi – New Acropolis Museum

New Acropolis Museum, Athens, 2001 -:

  • The design by Bernard Tschumi was selected as the winning project in the second competition for the design of the New Acropolis Museum.
  • Tschumi’s design revolves around three concepts: light, movement, and a tectonic & programmatic element, which together “turn the constraints of the site into an architectural opportunity, offering a simple and precise museum” with the mathematical and conceptual clarity of ancient Greek buildings.
  • The new Acropolis Museum is situated at the southern base of the Acropolis, at the ancient road that led up to the “sacred rock” in classical times.
  • Set only 800 feet from the legendary Parthenon, the museum will be the most significant building ever erected so close to the ancient temple.
  • Visitors to the museum will be able to see the Parthenon from the glass gallery.

A movement concept :

  • The visitor’s route forms a clear three-dimensional loop, affording an architectural promenade with a rich spatial experience extending from the archeological excavations to the Parthenon Marbles and back through the Roman period.
  • Movement in and through time is a crucial dimension of architecture, and of this museum in particular.
  • With over 10,000 visitors daily, the sequence of movements through the museum artifacts is conceived to be of utmost clarity.

A concept of light :

  • More than in any other type of museum, the conditions animating the New Acropolis Museum revolve around light.
  • Not only does daylight in Athens differ from light in London, Berlin or Bilbao, light for the exhibition of sculpture differs from that involved in displaying paintings or drawings.
  • It is first and foremost a museum of natural light, concerned with the presentation of sculptural objects within it.

A tectonic & programmatic concept

  • The base of the museum design contains an entrance lobby overlooking the Makriyianni excavations as well as temporary exhibition spaces, retail, and all support facilities.

Planning:

  • The middle is a large, double-height trapezoidal plate that accommodates all galleries from the Archaic period to the Roman Empire with complete flexibility.
  • A mezzanine welcomes a bar and restaurant with views towards the Acropolis, and a multimedia auditorium.
  • The top is the rectangular Parthenon Gallery around an outdoor court.
  • The characteristics of its glass enclosure provide ideal light for sculpture, in direct view to and from the reference point of the Acropolis.
  • The enclosure is designed so as to protect the sculptures and visitors against excess heat and light.
  • Base insulation system was used  for protection from earthquake.  Base is anchored to the ground  but the upper  part separated by cushion like ball bearings.
  • There is a gap between the double-glazing of the top floor, so the hot air from the galleries circulates through the glass wall gaps, via the ceiling and ends up in the basement, where it is cooled and brought back up in the galleries.

A brief biography:

  • Bernard Tschumi is an architect and educator born in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1944.
  • He spent half of his childhood in Lausanne, Switzerland and half in Paris, France due to the fact that his mother was French and his father was Swiss.
  • His father studied architecture in Paris, and at the end of World War II he set up the School of Architecture of the Ecole Polytechnique in Lausanne.
  • Presently, a permanent United States resident who holds both French and Swiss nationalities, Tschumi studied in Paris and at the Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, from which he received his degree in 1969.
  • From 1970 to 1979 he taught at the Architectural Association in London.
  • He also taught at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies at New York in 1976 and at Princeton University in 1976 and 1980.
  • From 1981 to 1983 he was visiting professor at the Cooper Union School of Architecture in New York.
  • He has been Dean of the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation at Columbia University in New York from 1988 to 2003.
  • ‘Form follows fiction’ is one example of Bernard Tschumi’s rules of architectonic notation that have made him an internationally influential theorist.
  • He has applied his theories to the problems of cultural and educational institutions, with his approach evident in his successful proposal for the project that catapulted him to prominence, the Parc de la Villette, Paris in 1998.

Awards and Honours:

Tschumi has garnered numerous awards, among them are:

  • the Legion d’Honneur (1986)
  • the Ordre des Arts et Lettres (1998)
  • the French Grand Prix National d’Architecture (1996)
  • the British Royal Victoria Medal (1994)
  • The American Architecture Award (1999).

Advertisements for Architecture, 1976 – 77:

“There is no way to perform architecture in a book. Words and drawings can only produce paper space, not the experience of real space. By definition, paper space is imaginary: it is an image.”

  • Several of Tschumi’s early theoretical texts were illustrated with Advertisements for Architecture, a series of postcard-sized juxtapositions of words and images.
  • Each was a manifesto of sorts, dealing with the dissociation between the immediacy of spatial experience and the analytical definition of theoretical concepts.
  • The function of the Advertisements -reproduced again and again, as opposed to the single architectural piece – was to trigger the desire for something beyond the page itself.
  • When removed from their customary endorsement of commodity values, advertisements are the ultimate magazine form, even if used ironically.
  • The logic presumes that since there are advertisements for architectural products, why not advertisements for the production (and reproduction) of architecture.

Screenplays, 1978:

“The Screenplays are investigations of concepts as well as techniques, proposing simple hypotheses and then testing them out. They explore the relation between events (“the program”) and architectural spaces, on one hand, and transformational devices of a sequential nature, on the other.”

  • The use of film images in these works originated in Tschumi’s interest in sequences and programmatic concerns. (“There is no architecture without action, no architecture without event, no architecture without program.”) Rather than composing fictional events or sequences, it seemed more informative to act upon existing ones.
  • The cinema thus was an obvious source. At the same time, the rich formal and narrative inventions of the only genuine 20th-century art inevitably encouraged parallels with current architectural thought. Flashbacks, crosscutting, jumpcuts, dissolves and other editing devices provided a rich set of analogies to the time and space nature of architecture.
  • Yet the concerns of the Screenplays were essentially architectural. They dealt with issues of:
    • material (generators of form: reality, abstraction, movement, events, etc.)
    • device (disjunction, distortion, repetition, and superimposition)
    • counterpoint (between movement and space, events and spaces, etc.)
    • The Screenplays aimed at developing a contemporary set of architectural tools.

The Manhattan Transcripts, 1976 – 81:

“Architecture is not simply about space and form, but also about event, action, and what happens in space.”

  • The Manhattan Transcripts differ from most architectural drawings insofar as they are neither real projects nor mere fantasies.
  • Developed in the late 1970s, they proposed to transcribe an architectural interpretation of reality. To this aim, they employed a particular structure involving photographs that either directed or witnessed events (some would call them “functions” others “programs”).
  • At the same time, plans, sections, and diagrams outlined spaces and indicated the movements of the different protagonists intruding into the architectural “stage set”.
  • The Transcripts explicit purpose was to transcribe things normally removed from conventional architectural representation, namely the complex relationship between spaces and their use, between the set and the script, between “type” and “program”, between objects and events.
  • The dominant theme of the Transcripts is a set of disjunctions among use, form, and social values, the non-coincidence between meaning and being, movement and space, man and object was the starting condition of the work.
  • Yet the inevitable confrontation of these terms produced effects of far ranging consequence.
  • The Transcripts tried to offer a different reading of architecture in which space, movement and events were independent, yet stood in a new relation to one another, so that the conventional components of architecture were broken down and rebuilt along different axes.

“Architecture only survives where it negates the form that society expects of it. Where it negates itself by transgressing the limits that history has set for it.”

“To achieve architecture without resorting to design is an ambition often in the minds of those who go through the unbelievable effort of putting together buildings.”

“Architecture is not about creating a static envelope. In other words, the building is always about movement in space.”

In many ways I prefer the images of Lerner with people because they show what the building is for.

One day, a dance company decided to use the building for a performance. People were sitting outside the building and looking into the spectacle on the ramps. They had understood the building.

Synopsis:

  • Tschumi’s style of design is often an integration of linear and curvature forms in his architecture. An example of this integration may be found in the Parc de la Villette in Paris, France.
  • The primary basis of Tschumi’s designs is the grid, whether it be horizontal or vertical, angled or straight, it is usually a dominant part of his designs.
  • The grids incorporated in his designs are usually derived from characteristics of the building site or the city.
  • The linear characteristics of Tschumi’s designs are often accompanied by those of curved or organic form.
  • Tschumi combines the urbanistic and naturalistic qualities of the site in his building designs to create modernist qualities in his designs.
  • Another key to defining Tschumi’s design style is that his designs strive to integrate into the environment they encompass. However, they don’t integrate in a way that they blend in, the integrate in a way that they work functionally and visually portray Tschumi’s design intentions.

Conclusion:

  • With these projects Tschumi opposed the methods used by architects for centuries to geometrically evaluate facade and plan composition.
  • In this way he suggested that habitual routines of daily life could be more effectively challenged by a full spectrum of design tactics ranging from shock to subterfuge.
  • The extreme limit-conditions of architectural program became criteria to evaluate a building’s capacity to function as a device capable of social organization.
  • Tschumi’s critical understanding of architecture remains at the core of his practice today.
  • By arguing that there is no space without event, he designs conditions for a reinvention of living, rather than repeating established aesthetic or symbolic conditions of design.
  • Responding to the disjunction between use, form, and social values by which he characterizes the postmodern condition, Tschumi’s design research encourages a wide range of narratives and ambiences to emerge and to self organize.
  • By advocating re-combinations of program, space, and cultural narrative, Tschumi asks the user to critically reinvent him/herself as a subject.

 

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Daniel Libeskind – JEWISH MUSEUM BERLIN

Life:

  • Born in post war Poland in 1946, Mr. Libeskind became an American citizen in 1965
  • He studied music in Israel and in New York, becoming a virtuoso performer.
  • He left music to study architecture, receiving his professional architectural degree in 1970 from the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in New York City.
  • Daniel Libeskind established his architectural office in Berlin, Germany in 1989. Upon winning the World Trade Center design competition, in February 2003, Studio Daniel Libeskind moved its headquarters to New York City. The office is now headquartered two blocks south of the original World Trade Center Site.

Major Projects:

  • Glass Courtyard, Berlin
  • West side Shopping Center, Switzerland
  • Tangent, South Korea
  • Media Center, HongKong

Philosophy:

  • Daniel Libeskind was born in 1946 – just after the Second World War, – in Lodz, Poland.
  • His parents were among the few Polish Jews who survived the Holocaust, while most of his extended family had been murdered.
  • When Daniel was eleven, the Libeskinds immigrated to Israel; at thirteen, he came to New York.

  • He was emotionally very attached towards tragedies of such magnitude and probably this is the reason that he is able to convey it through his architecture better than others.
  • The iconic examples are
  • a)Jews museum, Berlin, Germany, depicting the pains of the Jews during the 2nd world war
  • b)  WTC site, New York, satisfying the sentiments of thousands of people whose relatives suffered    from 9/11.
  • He also belongs to a group of modern architects known as deconstructivists, a group that also includes such architects as Zaha Hadid and Frank O’Gehry

“I believe that design and architecture are the foremost communicators of all—they tell a story.  Without them, there would be no history, no reference about where we are, where we’ve been and where we are going; not only as individuals but as a society” .

-Daniel Libeskind

About the Project:

  • Competition: 1989
  • Completion: 1999
  • Opening: 2001
  • Client: Stiftung  Juedisches  Museum Berlin

Technical Details:

  • Building Area: 15,500 sq.m. (=166,840 sq.ft.)
  • Structure: Reinforced concrete with zinc facade

Libeskind Zigzag in Berlin

The new Jewish Museum in Berlin, a striking deconstructivist structure is clad chiefly with titanium-covered zinc — a durable, stable, and malleable metal that reflects the light. The museum rises from a base whose line is frequently broken and unwinds in zigzag fashion.

DESIGN EVOLUTION:

  • STAR  represents Jewish history and culture throughout the history of Berlin and its absence in the present-day city.
  • ZIG-ZAG LINE represents the atrocities done on Jewish
  • Numerous numbers of trajectories between two points (AB), representing the individual biographical trajectories of citizens of Berlin, which Libeskind refers to as Histories.

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Charles Correa – Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya and Jeevan Bharti

Gandhi Smarak  Sangrahalaya:

Material used:

  • Tiled roof
  • Brick wall
  • Stone floor
  • Wooden floor

Light and ventilation by operable wooden louvers

These elements combine to form a pattern of tiled roofs which are grouped in casual meandering pattern, creating a pathway along which the visitors progresses towards the centrality of the water court

Philosophy:

  • Successfully  shows the life of Gandhiji
  • Minimalist  architecture
  • Material honesty
  • Contemporary  architecture
  • Glow of spaces

JEEWAN BHARTI , DELHI

  • This office complex of LIC is situated on the outer road of Connaught circle and acts as a pivot between the colonnades of CP and new generation of high rise towers that now surround it . Thus the building is both a proscenium and a backdrop:  a 12 storey stage set  whose faceted glass surface reflects  the buildings and trees around CP.
  • Two lower levels of the complex consists of shopping decks  and restaurants while upper level are offices located in two separate wings . A pergola connects the two buildings .
  • A city proposal for an elevated pedestrian walkways if constructed will pass through the two blocks , allowing pedestrians to traverse the building as the great darwaza  ie gateway defined by a portico form.

Charles Correa:

Education

  • 1946-1948 inter-science. St. Xavier’s college, university of Bombay
  • 1949-1955 B.Arch., University of Michigan.
  • 1953-1955 M.Arch., Massachusetts institute of technology.

Professional Experience

  • 1955-1958 partner with G.M. BHUTA associates
  • 1958- to date in private practice.
  • 1964-1965 prepared master plan proposing twin city across the harbor from Bombay.
  • 1969-1971 invited by the govt. of Peru
  • 1971-1975 chief architect to CIDCO
  • 1975-1976 consultant to UN secretory-general for HABITAT
  • 1975-1983 Chairman Housing Urban Renewal & Ecology Board
  • 1985 chairman dharavavi palnning commision

About him:

  • Born into a middle-class Catholic family in Bombay
  • Became fascinated with the principles of design as a child
  • At Michigan two professors who influenced him the most – Walter Salders and Buckminister Fuller.
  • Kevin lynch , then in the process of developing his themes for image of the city triggered Correa’s interest in urban issues
  • ‘India of those days was a different place, it was a brand-new country, there was so much hope; India stimulated me.’
  • —Architect, planner, activist and theoretician, an international lecturer and traveler.
  • —Correa’s work in India shows a careful development, understanding and adaptation of Modernism to a non-western culture. Correa’s early works attempt to explore a local vernacular within a modern environment. Correa’s land-use planning and community projects continually try to go beyond typical solutions to third world problems.
  • —India’s first man of architecture has a very simple philosophy: “Unless you believe in what you do, it becomes … boring,”

AWARDS:

  • 1961 Prize for low-income housing early
  • 1972 Correa was awarded the PadmaShri by the President of India
  • 1980 Correa was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Michigan
  • 1984 He was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal          Institute of British Architects
  • 1985 Prize for the Improvement in the Quality of Human
  • Settlements from the International Union of Architects.
  • 1986 Chicago Architecture Award.
  • 1987 the Gold Medal of the Indian Institute of Architects
  • 1990 the Gold Medal of the UIA (International Union of Architects)
  • 1994 the Premium Imperial from Japan society of art.
  • 1999 Aga khan award for vidhan sabha, bhopal

Diversity

  • In Bombay – Salvacao Church at Dadar ; Kanchanjunga Apartments
  • In Goa for the Cidade de Goa Hotel and the Kala Academy,
  • In Ahmedabad – Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya ; Ramkrishna House
  • Delhi – The LIC Centre; British Council Building
  • Kerala – Kovalam Beach Resort Hotel
  • Andamans – Bay Island Hotel in Port Blair

Architectural utility and grandeur spread over the subcontinent

Principles

  • Few cardinal principles in his vast body of work;
  • incrementality
  • pluralism
  • participation
  • income generation
  • equity
  • open-to-sky space
  • disaggregation.

Belapur housing being the one project where he has literally used these principals

Correa and Corbusier

Like most architects of his generation he has been influenced by Le Corbusier , but by his response to the Mediterranean sun with his grand sculptural decisions he believes that Corbusier’s  influence in the colder climates has not been beneficial because these heroic gestures had to withdraw into defensible space, into mechanically heated (and cooled) interiors of the building.

On way back to Bombay in 1955 – saw the Jaoul House (le Corbusier)  in Paris under construction

‘I was absolutely knocked out . It was a whole new world way beyond anything being taught in America at that time .then I saw Chandigarh and his buildings in Ahmedabad . They seemed the only way to build.”

Correa and Gandhi

  • Gandhi’s goal for an independent India had been a village model, non-industrial, its architecture simple and traditional
  • In these early works Correa demonstrates uncompromising execution of an idea as a powerful statement of form


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Renzo Piano , Richard Rogers – Centre Georges Pompidou

Technology cannot be an end in itself but must aim at solving long term social and ecological problems.“

— Richard Rogers

The team’s architectural intention:

  • Building on the lines of an “evolving spatial diagram”.
  • Large degree of flexibility.
  • Facades that would be “information surfaces.“
  • To maximise spatial movement and flow

Design Phase:

  • A 3-level infrastructure housing the technical facilities and service areas,
  • A vast 7-level glass and steel superstructure, including a terrace and mezzanine floor

The style

  • revealed structure
  • exposed ducts
  • machine-precision aesthetics

Greater care given on how they work.

VENTILATION DUCTS:

  • Exposed first Time
  • COLOUR-CODED DUCTS
    • Blue – Air
    • Green – Fluids
    • Yellow – Electricity cables
    • Red – Movement and flow (elevators) and Safety (fire extinguishers).

Movement and flow:

  • Maximise functional movement and flow
  • Inside out.–Free from circulation and servicing
  • Attractive differences rather than soft-edged harmony.
  • The building portrays its own datum .
  • This public display of components—steel skeleton and diagonal
  • bracing as outcome of  interior  requirement.
  • Unobstructed and adaptable interior volumes

The exterior zone of the structural frame is there to provide tension forces outside the main volume’s external columns, pulling the cantilevered horizontal members downward to reduce the bending forces on the floor span.– eliminates the need for supporting columns across the interior span of 157 feet (53.3 meters) mechanical and air-conditioning services are then placed in the exoskeletal frame

Inside Pompidou :

  • Public access to the museum areas is not from the escalator tubes, as the building exterior seems to suggest, but from doors located centrally at the lower edge of the plaza
  • Double-height interior forum connects the street level with the plaza level in a single volume .
  • Plaza-level reception area also looks down into a performance-level basement where a theater and meeting rooms are situated.
  • An interior escalator takes visitors to the street level on the northwest corner of the building
  • Small lobby connects to elevators and the exterior escalator.– visitors can already look down 46 feet– In reality, the escalator serves only the mezzanine, level four, and level six–
  • Horizontal circulation platforms occur inside the frame — most of them restricted to staff access and emergency exits.

Critical Structural Issues – Achieving column free space

In plan, the superstructure of the building consists of three zones.

  • The middle zone contains the 157-foot clear span across the building interior between the main columns.
  • The outside two zones make up structural wall frames to support and cantilever.

Outer tension in the wall frame act to reduce the bending moments on the center of the span

As a Building:

  • Structural exhibitionism
  • A symbol of process and technology
  • Turning the building inside out was the most successfully realized architectural intention.
  • Static monumentalism is out; dynamic servicing and flexible floor space is in.
  • A ceiling isn’t required to shape a space, as many urban spaces. Our vision is more oriented to the horizontal than to the vertical.

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Richard Meier – Getty Art Centre

Biography

  • Born on October 12, 1934 in Newark, New Jersey
  • 1957 – completed B.Arch at Cornell University in Ithaca
  • 1984 – awarded the Pritzker Prize
  • 1989 – awarded a royal gold medal by the Royal   Institute of    British Architects

Philosophy

  • Main figure in the “New York Five”
  • Main concepts: Light, Color and Place.
  • Main focus – placeness: “What is it that makes a space a place.”
  • Plain geometry, layered definition of spaces and effects of light and shade.
  • Forms interlaced in landscape.
  • Usually designs white Neo-Corbusian forms with enameled panels and glass

About the building:

  • Exploited the two naturally occurring ridges by overlaying two grids along these axes.
  • Along one axis : galleries
  • Along the other axis : administrative buildings.
  • The primary grid structure is a 30-inch square; most wall and floor elements are 30-inch squares or some derivative thereof.
  • Six buildings on 124 acres (50 hectares) :
    • Getty Conservation Institute
    • Getty Education Institute for the Arts
    • Getty Grant Program
    • Getty Information Institute
    • J. Paul Getty Trust, the Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities
    • J. Paul Getty Museum
  • It is architecture for the 21st century as imagined in the early 20th century.
  • There are no diversionary pediments and keystones, only suave geometries and rigorous details.
  • Richard Meier, designed the building in a way that it offers framed panoramic views of the city.
  • “the most complex task imaginable,“ in it was Mr. Meier’s goal to design six separate buildings, each with its individual purpose and architectural identity, and yet to produce “a feeling of intimacy and coherence” among them.
  • The museum has a seven-story deep underground parking garage with over 1,200 parking spaces.
  • Automated driverless three –car tram.
  • The 134,000-square-foot Central Garden at the Getty Center is the work of artist Robert Irwin.
  • Throughout the campus, numerous fountains provide white noise as a background
  • Five pavilions around a garden courtyard, interconnected by walkways, some open air.
  • Frank Lloyd Wright is one of the gods from whom Meier claims stylistic influence, and the basic form of this building — a five- story cylinder whose salient interior feature is a broad ramp that follows the building’s curve as it descends — suggests Wright’s Guggenheim Museum with the sides straightened and one large slice of the layer cake removed.

Materials

Three major architectural materials:

  • Stone – beige-colored, cleft-cut, textured, fossilized travertine catches the bright Southern California light
  • Glass
  • Concrete and steel with either travertine or aluminium cladding.

Abstract collages of interlocking white-metal-clad boxes and curved white-metal-clad walls, with nothing but dark punched windows and steel stair rails for exterior ornament.

Lighting

  • Galleries, offices, and the auditorium lead out to courtyards and terraces; all offices receive natural light.
  • First floor galleries house light-sensitive art, such as illuminated manuscripts, furniture or photography.
  • Computer-controlled skylights on the second floor.
  • The second floors are connected by a series of glass enclosed bridges and open terraces.
  • Most Sophisticated Computerized Lighting System Ever Installed In An Art Gallery.
  • Photo sensors located throughout the galleries:  measure and monitor incoming light on upper level of the museum.
  • 22 skylit galleries showcasing the museum’s priceless painting collections.
  • To counteract the damaging effects of direct sunlight, an elaborate configuration of shades and louvers were installed throughout the museum’s galleries and common areas to direct and control the stream of incoming light.

Conclusion

  • Getty Center portrays three key points that characterize good architecture: interaction, consistency and unity
  • The structure is clear and decipherable, it is complex in plan and overly rich in texture. The play of volumes and proportions, manifested in the cascade of terraces and balconies, flow of ramps, galleries, arcades and staircases, weave the interplay of nature and architecture.

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