Welcome to The Archi Blog

Welcome to The Archi Blog. The Archi Blog specializes mainly in four fields:

  1. Famous Contemporary Architects and their works
  2. Vernacular Architecture of Kerala
  3. Futuristic Architecture
  4. Architecture in Movies

You can follow us on Twitter and on Facebook. In case you have any queries or suggestions please contact me at sreekanthiitr@gmail.com

Architecture in Movies – The Matrix Trilogy

The 1999 Science Fiction Action movie, The Matrix, directed by The Wachowskis and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne and Hugo Weaving is undoubtedly one of the most complex and entertaining movies of the late 20th century. The Matrix Trilogy began with the feature film The Matrix and continued with two sequels, The Matrix Reloaded in May, 2003 and The Matrix Revolutions in November, 2003. It features a cyberpunk story incorporating references to several religious and philosophical ideas. It also shows influences of various mythologies, anime and different martial art forms. Amidst all the breath taking visuals and action sequences this futuristic fantasy movie gives a lot of prominence to architectural styles and design. The Wachoski brothers’ keen interest in detailing was also evident in their recent release, Jupiter Ascending. The Matrix surprisingly contains many of the real world buildings along with the fictional virtual reality cities within The Matrix.

Mega City can be considered as a conglomeration of many cities fused into one large city with a gigantic downtown and an impressive skyline
Mega City can be considered as a conglomeration of many cities fused into one large city with a gigantic downtown and an impressive skyline

The most notable of architectural features in the movie is the Mega City, an enormous virtual city in which the inhabitants of the Matrix live. Mega City can be considered as a conglomeration of many cities fused into one large city with a gigantic downtown and an impressive skyline. The city was designed to represent an amalgam of major cities in the United States and Australia during the 1990s characterized by grey and utilitarian areas with small pockets of colour and entertainment. The cities that provided inspiration for the Mega City include Sydney (where most of the film as shot), Oakland (where some of the car chase sequences in The Matrix Reloaded were filmed) and Chicago (the birthplace of The Wachowskis). Hence we see yet another movie in which the major city is designed based on existing cities. Other examples include the Gotham City in Batman Trilogy and the fascist architecture inspired structures of Equilibrium.

The concept of the city in The Matrix is actually an archetype of the hyper reality theory developed by prominent author Umberto Eco, who wrote the popular novel, The Name of the Rose, which was filled with detailed description of the cathedrals of Italy. The hyper reality theory states that the virtual city constructed by the machines controlling the society is more convincing and realistic to its inhabitants than the real world itself.

The logic behind the creation of the harsh grey and uninteresting landscape was to ensure that the unknowing inhabitants of the Matrix did not question their living space given that they lacked an alternative. It can also be possibly said that the City is an inhabitant-unique environment, where no one sees things the same way. Other theories state that the visualization of the City could possibly be a result of the redpills’ experience outside of the Matrix. Further, Agent Smith (Hugo Weaving) describes to Morpheus (Laurence Fishburne) that earlier instances of the Matrix which were cheerier did not meet the expectations of the humans hosted within. The Architect later expands on that explanation telling Neo (Keanu Reeves) that the first versions failed because they were designed around the two extremes of perfect paradise and absolute hell that the human mind was unable to accept.

A map of Mega City later provided to the designers of the game The Matrix Online by The Wachowskis splits the city into four main districts Downtown, International, Richland and Westview
A map of Mega City later provided to the designers of the game The Matrix Online by The Wachowskis splits the city into four main districts Downtown, International, Richland and Westview

A map of Mega City later provided to the designers of the game The Matrix Online by The Wachowskis splits the city into four main districts: Downtown, International, Richland (ironically called the slums by the redpills), and Westview. The map shows that the actual shape of the city represents the Y-shaped symbol which can also be seen at the end of the code sequence in The Matrix Revolutions.

The beautifully designed mansion is based on the traditional designs and is lined inside with numerous Greek like statues and ancient armours and weapons
The beautifully designed mansion is based on the traditional designs and is lined inside with numerous Greek like statues and ancient armours and weapons

An architectural feature that stands in stark contrast to the modern or futuristic styles in the old fashioned Chateau or the Merovingian mansion located in the mountains. The beautifully designed mansion is based on the traditional designs and is lined inside with numerous Greek like statues and ancient armours and weapons. The Chateau provides the audience a real world atmosphere amidst all the virtual reality.

As mentioned earlier, many of the real world buildings and structures are either referred to or are seen in the film. The Sydney Tower is visible on the construct TV screen. In the famous roof top bullet scene the audience can catch a glimpse of the UTS Tower building. Other prominent buildings from Sydney that are visible include Martin Place and St. James railway station. Early drafts of the movie’s screenplay identified the city as Chicago and most of the street and landmark names referenced are from Chicago, such as Wabash and Lake, Franklin and Erie, State Street, Balbo Drive, Cumberland Ave, the Adams Street Bridge and the Loop Train. Apart from the cities of Sydney and Chicago, the film also refers to the Heathrow Airport, the United States Congress to name a few.

Overall we can say that The Matrix Series captures the design of a futuristic all inclusive city with great detail and accuracy. With the huge influx of population to urban areas, the future cities would in all probability end up resembling the Mega City of The Matrix with loose connection to the base city from which it expanded.

Architecture in Movies – Interstellar

It is very interesting to note that movies which consider architecture as an essential element of the film fall under two categories, fantasy and futuristic. Though people may argue that futuristic movies are quite similar to fantasy ones, we have to admit that futuristic movies are made with much more scientific reasoning and backing and surprisingly the architecture elements of such films are generally derived from the past. We have seen how many of the futuristic movies take inspiration from the fascist architecture styles of the Nazi or Soviet era. But here is one movie based on a futuristic story line which has chosen to ignore this clichéd architectural representations and have gone for a much more simplistic approach (After all, Less is More).

Christopher Nolan’s 2014 Science Fiction film Interstellar tells the story of a crew of astronauts who travel through a wormhole in search of a new home for humanity. The incredibly talented star cast of the movie include Matthew McConaughey, Anne Hathaway, Jessica Chastain, Casey Affleck, Bill Irwin, Ellen Burstyn, Mackenzie Foy, John Lithgow, Michael Caine and Matt Damon.

Christopher Nolan had revealed in television interviews how he would have chosen architecture as an alternative career option. He had demonstrated his knowledge in the domain of architecture earlier in movies like Dark Knight Series and Inception. His approach has always being quite simplistic and grounded to reality, whether it was designing the city of Gotham in Batman movies or the spherical futuristic abode of humans in Interstellar.

So, many of you might be wondering what is there to talk about if the architecture style in the movie is quite simplistic and real. Well this is where we should not underestimate a man of Christopher Nolan’s calibre.

TARS
TARS

First let us discuss about the articulated machines present almost throughout the movie – The sleek grey acerbic robot named TARS (Voice by Bill Irwin). These rectangular slabs of shiny metal that walk, talk, have a sense of humour and operate like a cross between a Swiss army knife and an iPhone. Their blocky fragments can disconnect and rotate to perform a variety of actions, from pushing buttons to cart-wheeling across alien planets.  It also relates strongly to the architecture style of Mies van der Rohe, widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture along with Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusiner. Nolan explained in an interview how he honed in on the idea and asked the art designer of the film, Nathan Crowley who is a very big fan of modern architecture, “What if we designed a robot as if Mies van der Rohe designed a robot?” We can see how the machines of the movie are quite different from the anthropometric robots that we generally see in fiction (Like C3PO and R2D2 from Star Wars).

One of the most fascinating yet confusing part of the movie is the scene involving the Tesseract
One of the most fascinating yet confusing part of the movie is the scene involving the Tesseract

One of the most fascinating yet confusing part of the movie is the scene involving the Tesseract. (Spoiler Alert!) This appears when Coop (Matthew McConaughey) jumps from the space craft and is drawn into a black hole. Inside this black hole Nolan envisages an Escher-like architectural structure representing a single moment in time – the scene in which Coop leaves his daughter. Maurits Cornelis Escher is a Dutch graphic artist known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints which feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture, and tessellations.

Inside this black hole Nolan envisages an Escher-like architectural structure representing a single moment in time
Inside this black hole Nolan envisages an Escher-like architectural structure representing a single moment in time

Most of the other architectural features in the movie like the spaceship, the travel pods, and the station of Dr Mann (played by Matt Damon) are based on real scientific elements and have also taken inspirations from classic science fiction movies like 2001 Space Odyssey. These spaces focus more on functional aspects. Even the futuristic abode of humans shown at the end of the movie is quite simplistic from an architectural point of view. Most of the buildings shown are similar to any modern day buildings we find around us. Be it the houses near which the kids play baseball or the interiors of the hospital where Coop meets his aging daughter, Murph. Of course the shape of the terrain and the play of gravity makes them look fascinating.

Overall we can say that Christopher Nolan has tried to provide a simplistic treatment to the architecture elements in the movie. Considering the already complicated plot and scientific elements in the movie, we can assume that he wanted the buildings to be as near to present day structures as possible. These simplistic elements help make the movie easy to relate to for the audience.

Architecture in Movies – Guardians of the Galaxy

Marvel Entertainment’s ‘Guardians of the Galaxy’ directed by James Gunn is undoubtedly one of the most entertaining and visually spectacular movies of recent years. The movie is based on the Marvel Comics series and was produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It features a cast including Chris Pratt, Zoe Saldana, Vin Diesel, Bradley Cooper, John C. Reilly, Glenn Close and Benicio del Toro. The story revolves around a group of extra-terrestrial misfits who are on the run after stealing a coveted orb and find themselves in the most unusual situation of having to save their own galaxy. Like most of the movies based on futuristic themes, Guardians of the Galaxy also has a lot to offer to people with keen interest in art direction and architecture.

Kyln - This cylindrical shaped 360 degree structure required almost 100 tons of steel across its three levels and was later extended by around 200 feet in post-production stage
Kyln – This cylindrical shaped 360 degree structure required almost 100 tons of steel across its three levels and was later extended by around 200 feet in post-production stage

The first interesting building that caught my attention was the space prison named The Kyln where the Guardians initially meet. Apparently it was one of the largest buildings constructed during the production of the movie and it was later transformed into the Collector’s lab or Taneleer Tivan’s museum of curios. This cylindrical shaped 360 degree structure required almost 100 tons of steel across its three levels and was later extended by around 200 feet in post-production stage. The byzantine prison includes a series of steel corridors that connect cells to bays which are built on a steel frame on wheels. The structure is shown in great detail in one of the best action sequence in the movie.

Xandar, the most Earth-like planet in the galaxy and the one the prime antagonist of the movie, Ronan, wants to destroy, is a stark contrast to an otherwise dark environment in the film. This planet with the brightest environment was created almost entirely on computer. The credits of the film suggests that most of the structures on this planet draws inspiration from the works of renowned Valencia based Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, specifically the white concrete, gorgeous steel and glass arch of the Liege train station designed by him in Belgium. Interestingly, this building has also appeared in films such as Bill Condon’s The Fifth Estate, featuring Benedict Cumberpatch and Lorna’s Silence (2008). Calatrava’s City of Arts and Sciences, Valencia was also one of the locations of the film Tomorrowland starring George Clooney and Hugh Laurie. Moreover the climax of the film Faust (2000) was shot in Bach de Roda Bridge designed by Calatrava himself.

The credits of the film suggests that most of the structures on Xandar draws inspiration from the works of renowned Valencia based Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava -Liege Station,Belgium
The credits of the film suggests that most of the structures on Xandar draws inspiration from the works of renowned Valencia based Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava -Liege Station,Belgium

It must be said that the overhead visuals of the cities in the planet of Xandar with people walking, looks straight out of a 1950’s futuristic architectural drawing which one might find in Disneyland’s World of Tomorrow exhibit back in the fifties. It’s beautiful and bright setting is certainly a metaphor for the happy, peaceful planet that it is. However, the planet looks too clichéd and feels out of place amongst the rest of the galaxy.

Framestore, the VFX team behind Guardians of the Galaxy built Knowhere with an astonishing 250 unique models of buildings, pipes, railings, and lights, assembled into a 1.2 billion-polygon world
Framestore, the VFX team behind Guardians of the Galaxy built Knowhere with an astonishing 250 unique models of buildings, pipes, railings, and lights, assembled into a 1.2 billion-polygon world

The most spectacular element in the movie is undoubtedly the mining outpost in the movie “Knowhere”, which is actually the decapitated head of an ancient celestial being. Framestore, the VFX team behind Guardians of the Galaxy built Knowhere with an astonishing 250 unique models of buildings, pipes, railings, and lights, assembled into a 1.2 billion-polygon world. The team remarked that the structure was so complex because there was a huge amount of geometry to contain in one space. The first glimpse of Knowhere is one of the most visually spectacular scenes in the movie.

It is said that the director and the production design team were inspired by the look of greasy industrial mining towns and built both the Boot of Jemiah and the Collector’s Lab with an eye towards inspired dirtiness. The Collector’s lab which also appears in the post credit scenes of the movie is expected to be shown in further details in the upcoming sequel of the movie.

The Dark Aster- It's minimal and brutal, a stark grey colourless world devoid of any set dressing whatsoever, and relying purely on its heavy concrete-like architecture to convey its tone and function
The Dark Aster- It’s minimal and brutal, a stark grey colourless world devoid of any set dressing whatsoever, and relying purely on its heavy concrete-like architecture to convey its tone and function

Another interesting structure although not a building is the Ronan’s ship – the Dark Aster which is said to have been inspired by a mausoleum. Here’s what director James Gunn had to say about Ronan’s ship:  “It’s minimal and brutal, a stark grey colourless world devoid of any set dressing whatsoever, and relying purely on its heavy concrete-like architecture to convey its tone and function.” This can be compared to many of the fascist or soviet structures appearing in dark futuristic movies such as Christian Bale starrer Equilibrium.

The fact that this movie has given great attention to very minute details can be explained by the fact that even the floor lamps and planters in the movie were product designs by Austrian architect and designer Martin Mostböck. His new floor lamp- “The Edge.01” and the planter – “Arrow” are featured in the blockbuster movie.

Overall the movie is a visual treat for the audience and is a pleasant experience for people with an eye for production designs and architecture. I really hope that the upcoming movies in the Guardians of the galaxy series continue providing a visual treat for the spectators.

Living Walls

Introduction:

Living walls (also called bio walls, ìmurî vegetal, or vertical gardens) are composed of pre-vegetated panels or integrated fabric systems that are affixed to a structural wall or frame. Modular panels can be comprised of polypropylene plastic containers, geo textiles, irrigation, and growing medium and vegetation. This system supports a great diversity of plant species, including a mixture of ground covers, ferns, low shrubs, perennial flowers, and edible plants. Living walls perform well in full sun, shade, and interior applications, and can be used in both tropical and temperate locations.
Benefits Of Living Walls:
  • Improvement of Air Quality
  • Reduction of Urban Heat Island Effect
  • Moderate Building Temperatures
  • Contribute to Carbon Dioxide/Oxygen Exchange
  • Stormwater Management (absorbs 45-75% of rainfall)
  • Sound Insulation
  • Building Envelope Protection
  • Habitat and Biodiversity
  • Aesthetics
  • Health (visual contact with vegetation has been proven to result in direct health benefits).

LEED points:

  • Sustainable Sites Credit 7.1: Landscape Design That Reduces Urban Heat Islands, Non-Roof (1 pt) Exterior green walls reduce the solar reflectance of a structure, thus reducing the urban heat island effect.
  • Water Efficiency Credits 1.1, 1.2: Water Efficient Landscaping (1 to 2 pts) Buildings can incorporate a stormwater collection system for irrigation of the green walls and other landscape features. Using only captured, recycled, or nonpotable water may enable the project to achieve this credit.
  • Water Efficiency Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies (1 pt) Green walls can be utilized as wastewater treatment media for gray water. Other features, such as the incorporation of compost tea from a composting toilet, is another way for green walls to aid in the reduction of wastewater.
  • Energy and Atmosphere Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance (1 to 10 pts) Green walls can provide additional insulation and natural cooling, which reduces a building’s reliance on mechanical systems.
  • Innovation in Design Credits 1-4: Innovation in Design (1 to 4 pts) Green walls may contribute to innovative wastewater or ventilation systems.

Five scenarios were run with UFORE to assess the effect of both green walls and the urban forest on energy consumption.  The scenarios were designed to reflect the impact of different levels of intensification that could occur under Ontario’s new Regional Growth Management Strategy or under any Smart Growth strategy to contain urban sprawl.

  • Scenario 1
    BASELINE: this scenario was based on the reductions in energy consumption provided by existing trees and shrubs in Midtown.
  • Scenario 2
    No Trees: this scenario examined the effect on energy consumption in Midtown when all trees were removed from the area.
  • Scenario 3
    No Big Trees: this scenario examined the effect when all big trees with a diameter-at- breast-height greater than 22cm were removed from the area.
  • Scenario 4
    Trees off Buildings: this scenario examined the effect when trees that provided shade to buildings (within 3-5 meters) were removed.
  • Scenario 5
    Green Walls: this scenario examined the effect when existing trees and shrubs were removed and vertical “hedges” or walls of Juniper species were added within 3 meters of residential (medium and low) houses.
ITC Royal Gardenia
ITC Royal Gardenia

The Royal Gardenia:

  • The Royal Gardenia is the worlds largest LEED Platinum rated hotel.
  • The Royal Gardenia deals with this in a bold and unique way. For a start, the hotel’s Atrium lobby is not air-conditioned. Leading you into the hotel is just a simple glass arch. There are no doors and the whole lobby is wind-cooled. In addition to a square lotus fountain in the middle, the lobby features vertical hanging gardens with a mix of plants that are watered using drip irrigation.
  • The hotel is one of the first hotels in India to create the concept of vertical hanging gardens that are located at the main lobby and the Cubbon Pavilion, the coffee shop. These gardens rise towards the ceiling. Lighting is provided from natural sources or through an energy efficient lighting system.

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Iranian wind tower

INTRODUCTION:

  • Represents the ventilation as a sustainable cooling system in Iranian architecture.
  • To counter the harshly variable climates of the country, Iranians invented wind towers which still stand in various desert towns.
  • Important elements in Iranian architecture, providing air-conditioning in hot, dry and humid climates for thousands of years.
  • Rise not only on ordinary houses but also on top of water cisterns and mosques.

PROPERTIES:

  • To introduce cool outside air, driven by positive wind pressure.
  • The internal partition allows the low pressure on the lee side of the tower to suck air from inside the building.
  • In order to provide occupants with comfort, they were built with a four-directional orientation to catch wind from all directions and guide it into the house.

Wind towers consist of four parts:

  1. The body containing shafts
  2. Air shelves which catch hot air and prevent it from entering the structure,
  3. Flaps which redirect wind circulation,
  4. A roof covering.

MECHANISM:

  • Wind travels through the shafts on top of the tower to reach the interior of the building.
  • The air flow inside the structure travels in two directions, up and down.
  • The temperature difference between the interior and exterior of a building causes pressure variations which results in the creation of air currents.
  • In cities where the wind blows only from one single direction, only one of the shafts operates to receive the breeze.

There are three types of wind towers:

  • The most elementary type of wind tower was built over cellars and underground water tanks known as ab-anbar.
  •  These cellars kept food refrigerated and also served as sitting rooms where people could remain cool on hot summer days
  • In hot climate cities, one to six wind towers were used to cool the water.
  • They prevented stagnant air and the formation of dew or humidity inside, resulting in pure, clean and cold water all year round.
  • The second type transferred the flow into the basement where it hit damp walls and its humidity increased while its temperature decreased. The flow could be directed into other rooms using valves.
  • The third type of wind tower was taller and mainly used in multi-roomed one-story buildings. A dome-roofed hall under the tower helped ventilation.
  • Wind towers display the compatibility of human-built architectural forms with the environment and the ingenuity of Iranian engineers.
  • Following the introduction of western architecture,  structures such as wind towers gradually became part of the past though many still remain in use.
  • Modern architecture can make use of traditional Iranian methods to utilize air currents and evaporation in cooling and air-conditioning living quarters.

Burj al-Taqa – The Energy Tower Dubai, United Arab Emirates:

  • Order Year: 2006-07
  • Estimated Investment: £200m
  • Height: 322m (1,056ft)
  • Construction Start: 2008
  • Design: Gerber Architeckten international

ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS:

  • Dubai temperatures can reach 50°C, so the cylindrical shape of the building is designed to minimise exposure of the surface to the sun.
  • All energy is generated from wind turbines and solar panels; the main 60m (197ft) roof-mounted turbine
  •  The windows are protected from indirect sunlight elsewhere on the tower by a mineral coating, which also helps improve the effectiveness of the air conditioning.

 

DUBAI ENERGY TOWER CONSTRUCTION

  • The tower is constructed from cutting-edge vacuum glazed glass, which will be mass- commercialized in 2008, to reduce heat absorption and maximize the available daylight.
  • The central atrium and a five-perimeter atria contain transparent ducts that look like plastic cylinders running up through the ceiling on all levels of the building.
  • A double-skin glass façade protects the Solar Shield and helps to clear stale air from the rooms.

Talking of air conditioning, the main system for cooling the air inside the tower uses a convection system which pulls in cold air at the ground level, and sucks it up out of the top of the tower. The air conditioning will use seawater, and underground cooling units lower the temperature inside to 18 degrees C / 64.4 degrees F. This building may be a technological beacon for environmentally friendly skyscrapers, but as a commenter on metaefficient points out, new building designs don’t do much to solve the inefficiency of older buildings in cities. Although that doesn’t mean we can’t imagine what it’d be like to work and live in a sea of glass and metal without feeling slightly bad about it.

“Such a building has to work like a thermos flask,“ says DS-Plan’s energy manager Peter Mösle

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Digital Architecture

Strictly speaking the architecture of present century has already witnessed the marvels of DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE, but there will a paradigm shift in this field when we look to the future.
This presentation aims at presenting those technologies that comes( or will come) under the ambit of digital architecture.

  • The architecture of modern times is characterized by its capacity to take advantage of the specific achievements of that same modernity: the innovations offered it by present-day science and technology
  • The relationship between new technology and futuristic architecture even comprises a fundamental datum of what may be referred to as avant-garde architectures
  • Future will be about integrating computer-aided design with computer-aided fabrication and construction
  • Redefining the relationship between designing and producing
  • Eliminating many geometric constraints imposed by traditional drawing and production processes— making complex curved shapes much easier to handle, for example, and
  • reducing dependence on standard, mass-produced components
  • It would bridge the gap between designing and producing

Digital architectures refer to the computationally based processes of form origination and transformations. Several digital architectures are identified based on the underlying computational concepts such as:

  1.  topological space (topological architectures)
  2.  isomorphic surfaces (isomorphic architectures)
  3.  motion kinematics & dynamics (animate architectures)
  4.  keyshape animation (metamorphic architectures)
  5.  parametric design (parametric architectures)
  6.  genetic algorithms (evolutionary architectures)

Topological architectures:

In “architectural curvi-linearity”, it offers examples of new approaches to design that move away from the de-constructivism’s “logic of conflict and contradiction” to develop a “more fluid logic of connectivity.” This is manifested through folding that departs from Euclidean geometry of discrete volumes, and employs topological, “rubber-sheet” geometry of continuous curves and surfaces. In topological space, geometry is represented by parametric functions, which describe a range of possibilities. The continuous, highly curvilinear surfaces are mathematically described as NURBS – Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines. What makes NURBS curves and surfaces particularly appealing is the ability to easily control their shape by manipulating the control points, weights, and knots. NURBS make the heterogeneous and coherent forms of the topological space computationally possible.

Eg: Guggenheim Bilbao by Frank Gehry.

Isomorphic Architectures

Blobs or metaballs, or isomorphic surfaces, are amorphous objects constructed as composite assemblages of mutually inflecting parametric objects with internal forces of mass and attraction. They exercise fields or regions of influence, which could be additive or subtractive. The geometry is constructed by computing a surface at which the composite field has the same intensity: isomorphic surfaces. These open up another formal universe where forms may undergo variations giving rise to new possibilities. Objects interact with each other instead of just occupying space; they become connected through a logic where the whole is always open to variation as new blobs (fields of influence) are added or new relations made, creating new possibilities. The surface boundary of the whole (the isomorphic surface) shifts or moves as fields of influence vary in their location and intensity. In that way, objects begin to operate in a dynamic rather than a static geography.

Eg.:Cardiff Opera by Greg Lynn, BMW-Pavilion by B. Franken

Animate Architectures:

Animation software is utilized as medium of form-generation. Animate design is defined by the co-presence of motion and force at the moment of formal conception. Force, as an initial condition, becomes the cause of both motion and particular inflections of a form. While motion implies movement and action, animation implies evolution of a form and its shaping forces. The repertoire of motion-based modeling techniques are keyframe animation, forward and inverse kinematics, dynamics (force fields) and particle emission. Kinematics are used in their true mechanical meaning to study the motion of an object or a hierarchical system of objects without consideration given to its mass or the forces acting on it. As motion is applied, transformation are propagated downward the hierarchy in forward kinematics, and upward through hierarchy in inverse kinematics.

Eg.:

  • House in Long island by Greg Lynn
  • Port Authority Bus Terminal in NY by Greg Lynn: Dynamic simulations take into consideration the effects of forces on the motion of an object or a system of objects, especially of forces that do not originate within the system itself. Physical properties of objects, such as mass (density), elasticity, static and kinetic friction (or roughness), are defined. Forces of gravity, wind, or vortex are applied, collision detection and obstacles (deflectors) are specified, and dynamic simulation computed.

Metamorphic architectures

Metamorphic generation of form includes several techniques such as key shape animation, deformations of the modeling space around the model using a bounding box (lattice deformation), a spline curve, or one of the coordinate system axis or planes, and path animation, which deforms an object as it moves along a selected path. In key shape animation, changes in the geometry are recorded as key frames (key shapes) and the software then computes the in-between states. In deformations of the modeling space, object shapes conform to the changes in geometry of the modeling space.

Eg: Offices of BFL Software ltd. by Peter Eisenman

Parametric Architectures

In parametric design, it is the parameters of a particular design that are declared, not its shape. By assigning different values to the parameters, different objects or configurations can be created. Equations can be used to describe the relationships between objects, thus defining an associative geometry. That way, inter dependencies between objects can be established, and objects’ behavior under transformations defined. Parametric design often entails a procedural, algorithmic description of geometry. In this “algorithmic spectaculars”, i.e., algorithmic explorations of “tectonic production” using mathematica software, architects can construct mathematical models and generative procedures that are constrained by numerous variables initially unrelated to any pragmatic concerns. Each variable or process is a ‘slot’ into which an external influence can be mapped, either statically or dynamically.

Eg.: Algorithmic spectaculars by M Novak

Evolutionary architectures

Evolutionary architecture proposes the evolutionary model of nature as the generating process for architectural form.
Architectural concepts are expressed as generative rules so that their evolution and development can be accelerated and tested by the use of computer models. Concepts are described in a genetic language which produces a code script of instructions for form generation. Computer models are used to simulate the development of prototypical forms which are then evaluated on the basis of their performance in a simulated environment. Very large numbers of evolutionary steps can be generated in a short space of time and the emergent forms are often unexpected. The key concept behind evolutionary architecture is that of the genetic algorithm. The key characteristic is a “a string-like structure equivalent to the chromosomes of nature,” to which the rules of reproduction, gene crossover, and mutation is applied. Optimum solutions are obtained by small incremental changes over several generations.

Eg.:“Pseudo-organisms” by J. Frazer

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Elhorst | Zenderen – OOSTERHUIS.NL

Kas Oosterhuis:

  • Born in 1951,he studied architecture at the Delft University of technology.
  • Afterwards, he taught as unit master at the AA in London. From there, he worked and lived one year in the former studio of Doesburg in Paris, together with visual artist Ilona Lénárd

Llona Lenard

  • Born 1948 in Hungary, became an independent visual artist
  • In 1989, both founded KasOosterhuisArchitekten in Holland (renamed into ONL [Oosterhuis_Lénárd] in 2004)

OOSTERHUIS OFFICE:

  • Visual artists, web designers and programmers work together and join forces
  • Practice of the fusion of art, architecture and technique on a digital platform
  • The portfolio of ONL exists of a variety of projects in divergent fields of experience
  • Housing projects, exhibition spaces corporate business buildings, city planning tools, online experiences, interactive installations.
  • With the help of new programming techniques ONL controls the complex geometry and the engineering of double-curved surfaces and the supportive construction.

CAAD Architects:

  • Frank. O. Gehry
  • Kas Oosterhuis
  • Peter Eisenman
  • Greg Lynn

COMPUTER DRIVEN ARCHITECTURE

Oosterhuis says ‘The most important feature for architecture is that in its history is no longer fixed and static. Due to its programmability of both form and information content the construct becomes a lean and flexible vehicle for a variety of usage’

 A computer development history:

  • 1950‘s – the introduction of the computer to mainstream scientific research.
  • 1960‘s – the introduction of graphics and visual representation by computer.
  • 1970‘s – The large industrial acceptance of CAD in the design process.
  • 1972- The first demonstration of 3d-CAM fabrication from a punchcard machine
  • 1978   – Dassault Ind. develops CATIA (Computer-Aided 3-Dimensional Interactive Application)
  • 1980‘s – Development of the home PC, and software packages.
  • 1985   – Alias releases ALIAS1 animation & SFX software
  • 1988- SurfCAM 1.0 is released to the fabrication industry
  • 1990‘s – Finally an acceptance of CAD in the architectural community
  • 1997    – FOG Guggenheim Bilbao
  • 1998- AliasWavfront releases MAYA
  • 2000‘s – First mainstream project from architects employing the full potential of CAM.

Facts:

  • CAD and CAM were developed by large-scale industry for their own use.
  • CAD was not accepted for use in Architecture industry until 30 years after its inception.
  • Cutting edge architects are using digital design and fabrication technology in developing their projects. The combination of these technologies returns the architect to the role as both builder and as a part of the fabrication/construction team  the master builder

 The Design and Production cycle:

As a designer you are given a problem:

  • You analyse the requirements & limitations
  • Formulate a design strategy
  • Begin to design based on all known parameters from your analysis

– Modeling and SCRIPT development.
– Pattern, ornament, or form GENERATION.
– REFINEMENT for manufacturing.
– CAM INTERPRETATION for the machine(s)
– G-Code OUTPUT.
– CNC MANUFACTURING

  • This output iks very useful for overall evaluation of the appropriateness of the design response.
  • The output may be a PROTOTYPE which can be evaluated and used to refine the generation of the design.

Modern technology usages in architecture:  

  • Virtual Reality
  • Interfaces
  • Simulations
  • Sketch Recognition
  • Generative Design
  • NOX: Interactive Architecture: Representations of diagrams, not representation of types.

Why use CAM in Architecture:

Efficiency

  • Automation, and commercial / cost advantages.
  • Repetition and time savings.
  • Rapid prototyping.

Complexity

  • Able to quickly manufacture very complex forms.
  • Ability to manufacture single forms that traditionally would have been made in pieces.
  • Ability to scale items precisely, and use scale testing.

Customization

  • Able to use parametric design to create large runs of different pieces
  • Automating both the generative process and the manufacturing
  • Able to produce ‚distinct‘ modular components.

Elhorst | Zenderen:

  • Date: 1995
  • Site: Zenderen
  • Project architect: Prof ir Kas Oosterhuis
  • Design team: Kas Oosterhuis, Ilona Lénárd, Leo Donkersloot, Niek van Vliet,
  • Client: Regio Twente

-Sculpture building with head, trunk and tail.
-After 15 years, converted to its new function as sports centre.

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