A research on the Influence of Frank Lloyd’s Influence on younger generation architects. This was also a part of a class presentation for History of Modern Architecture class. The pattern followed is a brief description of an architect and then the influence on Frank Lloyd Wright on him. Do go through the slideshow at the end.
Influence on Dutch Architects
- Hendrik Petrus Berlage
- Gerrit Rietveld
- Robert van ‘t Hoff
Hendrik Petrus Berlage:
- Born in Amsterdam in 1856
- Considered the “Father of Modern architecture” in the Netherlands
- The intermediary between the Traditionalists and the Modernists
- Berlage’s theories inspired most Dutch architectural groups of the 1920s, including the Traditionalists, the Amsterdam School, De Stijl and the New Objectivists.
Frank Lloyd Wright’s influence on Berlage:
- A Dutch furniture designer and architect.
- One of the principal members of the Dutch artistic movement called De Stijl
- Strongly influenced by Charles Mackintosh and Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright’s Influence on Gerrit Rietveld:
- Rietveld Schröder House. His love for basic geometry was greatly influenced by Wright. Other influences in this specific case include:
•Breaking the box
Frank Lloyd Wright’s Influence on De Stijl:
- The social and economic circumstances of the time formed an important source of inspiration for their theories, and their ideas about architecture were heavily influenced by Berlage and Frank Lloyd Wright.
Robert van ‘t Hoff and Frank Lloyd Wright:
- In 1913 van ‘t Hoff was given a copy of a German translation of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Wasmuth Portfolio by his father.
- This made a profound impression and in June 1914 he travelled to the United States to see Wright’s work in person, visiting the Unity Temple, Taliesin, Midway Gardens, the Larkin Administration Building and Wright’s suburban houses in Oak Park, Illinois.
Van ‘t Hoff and Wright discussed collaborating on a project for an art gallery on Long Island, New York that van ‘t Hoff had become involved with through his relationship with Augustus John, but the project did not progress and van ‘t Hoff returned to Europe.
Frank Lloyd Wright’s Influence on Van’t Hoff:
- Van ‘t Hoff’s first work on returning from the United States was the Villa Verloop – a summer house in Huis ter Heide whose design bore the unmistakable influence of Wright’s Prairie Houses.
- The Villa Henny:It was a highly idealistic and experimental house in both design and execution.One of the earliest houses to be built entirely out of reinforced concrete.
The Villa Henny made full use of the aesthetic freedom this presented with a flat roof, overhangs, receding walls and a highly geometrical outline that presented an unambiguously modern profile compared to the rustic naturalism of his earlier designs.
Willem Marinus Dudok:
- Willem Dudok was born in Amsterdam in 1884
- Dudok’s early style grew out of the Amsterdam School
- List of major buildings / works:Public Baths, Hilversum, 1921, Abattoir, Hilversum, 1923, Dutch Hostel, Paris,1926-38, Town Hall, Hilversum, 1928-30, Bilenkauf Store,Rotterdam,1928-30, Vondel School, Hilversum, 1929.
Frank Lloyd Wright’s Influence on Dudok:
- Dudok borrowed extensively from Frank Lloyd Wright and the American Prairie School. He utilized the brick architecture and the dramatic asymmetrical massing of geometrical forms common to this style.
- The overhanging eaves and other elements of his landmark City Hall were clearly influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright
Mies Van Der Rohe:
- Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, along with Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of Modern architecture.
- He created an influential 20th century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity.
Frank Lloyd Wright’s Influence on Van Der Rohe:
- After 1923, Mies’s style shifted, and he came heavily under the influence of Dutch neo-plasticism and Russian suprematism.
- The former influence, along with the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, drove Mies to experiment with independent walls and ceilings arranged in an open, pin-wheeling manner.
- The latter influence drove Mies to consider the reduction and abstraction of these elements into dynamic and contrapuntal compositions of pure shapes in space.
Mies was enthralled with the free-flowing spaces of inter-connected rooms which encompass their outdoor surroundings as demonstrated by the open floor plans of the American Prairie Style work of Frank Lloyd Wright.
These experiments culminated in one of Mies van der Rohe’s most significant works, the German Pavilion built for the Barcelona World Exposition in 1929.
- A German architect
- Founder of the Bauhaus School
- Along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture.
Frank Lloyd Wright’s Influence on Gropius
- The plan of the Cologne building was axially designed in the Beaux-Arts tradition, but the major influence was predominantly that of Frank Lloyd Wright.
- Gropius and Meyer were influenced by Wright’s style especially in the horizontality and the wide overhanging eaves, but also in the symmetry, the corner pavilions, and the whole spirit of Wright’s concept.
- Swiss-French architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called Modern architecture or the International style.
- He was a pioneer in studies of modern high design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities.
Influence of Frank Lloyd Wright on Corbusier:
- The plan and interiors of the Schwob house in Switzerland closely resemble that of Frank Lloyd Wright. Le Corbusier’s notion of Free plan was greatly influenced by Wright.
The salient features of Frank Lloyd Wright’s Design that inspired the architects to follow include:
- His structural systems
- Breaking the box
- Furniture designs
- Fluidity of spaces
- And last but not the least “Organic architecture”
A research work for a presentation in History of Modern Architecture class.
What is Bauhaus?
- A school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.
- It operated from 1919 to 1933.
- Founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar
- Has become one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design.
The main influences behind the Bauhaus:
- The English Arts and Crafts movement
Ideals of the Bauhaus movement:
- Absence of ornamentation.
- Harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design.
- Integration of art and mass production
- Inexpensive building.
- Unity of form and function
- The idea that design is in service of the community
- A belief in the pearfection and efficiency of geometry.
The Impact of Bauhaus:
The White City(Tel Aviv):
- Refers to a collection of over 4,000 Bauhaus style buildings built in Tel Aviv from the 1930s by German Jewish architects who immigrated to Palestine after the rise of the Nazis.
- Tel Aviv has the largest number of buildings in this style of any city in the world.
- An UNESCO world heritage site
- The Engel House in the White City of Tel Aviv. Architect: Zeev Rechter, 1933. A residential building that has become one of the symbols of Modernist architecture. The first building in Tel Aviv to be built on pilotis.
- Major Architects:Arieh Sharon, Ze’ev Rechter, Joseph Neufeld, Dov Carmi, Benjamin Chlenov, Carl Rubin, Shmuel
Key aspects of Design in Tel Aviv:
- The depicted sense of “togetherness” and collectivity was well anchored in the climate of the Jewish community (Yishuv) in Israel at the time.
- The needs of the “public” or “collective” as a whole were more important than the “individual”‘s uniqueness.
- An “intermediate space” was created between public street life and residents’ private lives.
- In Tel Aviv most roofs were indeed intended for tenants’ use, yet instead of gardening, communal laundry rooms were constructed.
Impact on Architecture in the rest of the world:
- After the patrons had left Germany due to political reasons they took the Bauhaus movement to USA, Canada & Israel and the rest of Western Europe.
- When Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer fled Germany, they both arrived at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, in an excellent position to extend their influence and promote the Bauhaus as the primary source of architectural modernism.
- When Mies fled in 1936, he came to Chicago.
- The city’s skyline was decisively influenced by the theories of the Bauhaus.
- The abundance of connections between German and American architecture in Chicago provides rich grounds for exploration and research.
- Architects involved: László Moholy Nagy,Helmut Jahn
Students of Gropius who later propagated the ideas of Bauhaus:
- Philip Johnson
- I.M. Pei
- Lawrence Halprin
- Paul Rudolph
- The impact of Bauhaus was not limited to Germany but spread around the world because of the patrons travelling to various nations.
- The patrons turned Professors further spread the movement
- The international style is simply another name for the Bauhaus style